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Ecological Echo-Chamber: Sci-Fi Macro-Imagineering
Richard Brook Cathcart © 2017 Creative Commons License*
Creative Commons License means free use is permitted, provided: 1) Authorship attribution is given, 2) Use is non-commercial, and 3) Music is not altered. 2017
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface Acknowledgements Chapter One
Altair-4: Sci-Fi’s Green Sky Alien Planet-Gesamtkunstwerk Chapter Two
Watch Southern California’s Blue Skies! (For Wind-wafted Bad Weed Seed!)
Serendipitous Connect-the-Dots Earth Macro-Imagineering Chapter Four
Socio-Ecological Attraction: “Disco Mirror Ball” in Our Sky?
(2016) and Purposeful Astro-Engineering of Our Sun
“Macro-Imagineering”, a term coined by RBC at least two decades ago, may be very similar in meaning to another declared word coinage, “Exploratory Engineering” by Kim Eric Drexler (born 1955). Defined thus: Exploratory Engineering relies on careful peer review, physical and computer simulations and other methods usually employed by scientists, but applies them to some magnificent hypothetical artifact, a specific and detailed hypothesized artifact design or artifact creation process. Furthermore, “Exploratory Engineering” or “Macro- Imagineering—either term is OK as they are synonymous from Team Geographos’ viewpoint—must be
within the realm of possibility as determined by constantly progressing Science (Bailey, 2017). Therefore, Pulp Macro-Imagineering simply recounts new solutions—speculations, conjectures—to our practical macro-problems for the purpose of prolongation of humanity’s survival as an intelligent species. Macro-Imagineering melds Exploratory Engineering with Anticipatory Geoscience. Macro-imagineers are always propositional! RBC was particularly inspired to seek the education necessary to become a Macro-Imagineer by excited reading of the commercial Sci-Fi of the
book series (Osten, 2004) as well as the wonderfully entertaining live demonstrations and clear explanations provided by television’s
Watch Mr. Wizard
series (1951-1965), master-hosted by the genial gentleman Mr. Don Herbert (1917-2007). Human imagination is a “staging ground” for worldly human action. Any realistic expectation of what Science and Technology R&D results actually imply must always be tempered by the fact of imperfection, the uncertainties of reported scientific measurements. We hope that Macro-Imagineering and creativity, evidenced herein by Team Geographos, will reinforce the common democratic design of our Earth- world’s technological future.
Bailey, D.C. (in press, 2017) Not Normal: the uncertainties of scientific measurement.
Royal Society Open Science.
2 December 2016 posting at arXiv:1612.00778v1.
Bernardo, S.M. (Ed.) (2014)
Environments in Science Fiction.
North Carolina: MacFarland. 208 pages.
Osten, Robert Von der (April 2004) Four Generations of Tom Swift: Ideology in Juvenile Science Fiction.
The Lion and the Unicorn
28: 268- 283.
Team Geographos member RBC wishes to acknowledge the contributions of Mr. Steven Ross, Children’s Book Department expert with Vroman’s Bookstore (Pasadena, CA) for his significant helpfulness with research related to
media-history; the “ancient wisdom” of Dr. J.M. Herndon; as well as the benefits of participation, in various work-related R&D activities with Mr. Jeffrey E. Milner. Again, my thanks go to the owner and knowledgeable staff of Mark Piscitelli Men’s Fashions (Pasadena, CA) for their evident sartorial expertise as well as to the always pleasant and hard-working staff of Milt & Edie’s Drycleaners & Tailoring Center (Burbank, CA)—“lookin’ good clothing- wise” raises any struggling writer’s morale when the task of putting cogent and coherent words on a blank PC screen-page at times becomes especially arduous! My wholehearted “many thanks” are hereby conveyed to Dr. Viorel Mihail Badescu (Bucharest, Romania), a multi-decade wise friend. And, a special personal print-media shout-out for Mr. Jose Luis Castillo, Burbank (CA), neighbor extraordinaire.
Altair-4: Sci-Fi’s Green Sky Alien Planet-Gesamtkunstwerk
“In twenty-four hours you must be a hundred million miles out in space. The Krell furnaces—chain-reaction….It cannot be reversed!” These words, the expiring Professor Edward Morbius’ final warning shouted utterance to his witnesses in the pre-human Space Age [before AD 1957, (Millard, 2016)] Hollywood-made film
(1956). [In our Solar System 93 million miles is denoted as one Astronomical Unit, AU: the distance between the Sun and Earth. The real-Universe, containing two trillion galaxies, does have a star humans named Altair, in Aquila the Eagle, which shines, almost point-like, at designated Magnitude +1, seen from Earth.] Following a brief period of movie-time, and utilizing the “creative geography” film-making technique invented by Lev Kuleshov (1899-1970) during the 1920s, the two Morbius dying-scene witnesses, his beloved daughter Altaira and Commander J.J. Adams, escaping safely aboard the flattened saucer- shaped United Planets interstellar manned spacecraft Cruiser C-57-D, circa AD 2200, also foreknowingly see the planet Altair-4 suddenly transmogrify from a Mars-resembling planet into an eye-dazzling distant scintillating white-dot blossoming as new-born starlight,
, on the spaceship’s enormous command-deck television screen using tiny 1950s-fashion screen pixels, color-changing squares embedded still in standard AD 2016 television monitors! [This truly dramatic violen scene, in part, replicates a televisual technical failure when only Americans viewed remotely the first live broadcast of a continental USA nuclear weapon explosion on 22 April 1952 (Fay, 2016). Nuclear weapon explosions debut as two separate World War II anti-people incineration event-processes occurred during 1945. However, it was not until 1954 that radioactive “fallout” came into common use by our world’s media, and not until 1956 was world-public informed that
Earth’s bioshell could be poisoned (Jacobs, 2015)! Such sickening/killing fallout, along with our civilization’s techno-fossils lodged below the active human settlement layer of Earth’s crust, defines the Earth’s ceno-Anthropocene stratum! Even the film-demonstrated 200,000+ year-old tough Krell Metal—a chemical composition out of reach of our best materials production engineering effort so far, currently an extremely hard carbon nitride compound (Stavrou et al., 2016)—is vaporized ingloriously, leaving no trace whatsoever within this Universe!
Artistic painted rendering of a blazing, newly lit star. Here it is shown as a spherical explosion with a central energy source, thus producing a spherically symmetric blast wave propagating in the positive radial direction, namely outwards in every direction, away from the innermost ignition point. Jupiter is converted by Aliens into a star in the 1984 Hollywood Sci-Fi sequel
: such conversion would increase Jupiter’s luminosity from its normal -8.523 to and extra-ordinary 18.038 Apparent Magnitude viewed from Earth’s surface. (Google Image.)
Discovered earlier to be a unique green-sky planet hosting an Alien-created Krellocene Total Artwork [Gesamtkunstwerk], Altair-4 had been impressively vaporized by explosion of its planetocentric Krell-installed “nuclear reactors”, assumed thereafter to become an object of astronomical study by postulated interested investigators elsewhere in the Universe. The contact of many mega-tonnes of anti- matter with the planet’s Nature-given components would accomplish the complete demolition of Altair-4 by explosively releasing about 7.6 X
Joules. Humans have already managed to explain the production and dynamics of electrons and positrons by impact of ultra-high intensity laser beam-matter interactions—in short, the first computer- calculated means to create both matter and anti-matter (Kostyyukov and Nerush, 2016). Or, perhaps, the universally masterful Krell had managed nuclear-lasers powered by
Ta [tantalum-180m] to do the reactor vaporization events? Though unplanned, except by the Krell [anticipating possible future species desperation?] in the form of a film set-placed, conveniently existing, built-in planetary destruction-switch
actuated by a terrified and unconsciously jealous Professor Morbius, in any case, Altair-4’s Krellocene Geologic Time—Geologic Time is determined by biota because only biological processes engage in
of structure, whilst Astrologic Time is defined by changes in phase, or the predominant structure of matter in a Universe—was terminated artificially, and deliberately. Noteworthy is that the fictitious planet Altair-4, really a gigantic robot capable of
rapid assembly and disassembly, evidently had limited or no on-screen biodiversity. In reality, Earth’s post-World War II ceno-Anthropocene Geologic Time may someday be technologically terminated in perhaps the very same fashion, but for an entirely different, positive reason linked directly to an aggressive eco-industrial goal—namely, the efficient and absolutely necessary far-future generation of many mineable asteroids from all intentionally shattered planets and moons comprising a great bulk of our present-day Solar System (Cathcart, 1983; Olson, 2012)!
Visually, to late-1950s movie-theatre audiences and 21
Century television viewers, the
Altair-4 resembled the current NASA images of Mars’s dry, all-land surface, or the totally imaginary circumbinary desert planet Tatooine (Miller, 2017; Lopez and Zimbelman, 2014) revolving around two Main Sequence stars as seen frequently in
Star Wars Episodes
; after stellifying Altair-4, that stellar system became, at the film’s finale, a binary star system too.
South Africa, with its world-famous deep gold mines, is the deepest ecosystem-nation contained by Earth’s bioshell; miners first descended to Earth-crust depths below one kilometer in Europe during AD 1875 to extract valuable minerals—long before the 21
Century effort to construct skyscrapers higher than one kilometer commenced; Mark Richard Shuttleworth (born 1973), during 2002 AD, was the first
self-funded South African space tourist to achieve low-Earth orbit. Whilst humans ponder the true onset moment of its own worldwide ceno-Anthropocene—surely the first instance of a new Earthly Geologic Time period, stemming purely from our benighted civilization’s industrialized technological actions, and witnessed firsthand by its living human time period name-devisors to boot—mirrors the blasted end of what Team Geographos refer drolly to as the Krellocene! Team Geographos offers its CHAOS-CAP in Chapter Five as the true onset of Earth’s Anthropocene, commenced when and if Homo sapiens first play a primary role altering all of our planet’s geosystems as a
, permanently or reversibly, perhaps in our agency as “Savior of Earth’s Biosphere” attacked by predatory Aliens not native to our Solar System; our species’ action must be a
technological rupture of Earth’s natural Geologic Time
, done in a selfless attempt to control Earth’s fate (Haff, 2016). [It is worth noting that almost 50% of all observed Sun-type stars known to human astronomers are also taken to be members of binary and higher order stellar systems.]
Altair-4 was shown film displayed theatre-going audiences as a planet with an attractive-to-the-eye green sky in a one-way audio-visual communication of foreignness sent and received within a single ornately-decorated room visited temporarily.
2. However, since the advent of colorized flat-screen televisions, such image and sound receivers have almost ceased to be discrete living-room cultural objects of only decoration and entertainment, news acquisition—indeed, such wall-like receivers are now more socially menacing than ever, capable
of secretly monitoring audience participation and viewing habits (Horrocks, 2017)!
A panorama of Altair-4. Like some pre-ceno-Anthropocenic Mars, Altair-4 pictured here is without any features common to Earth, yet it has a beguiling aesthetic of its own (McMahon, 2016). Altair-4’s pudgy triangular-shaped native population must have seen their world quite differently than human eyes see (Hoffman and Prakash, 2014; Jameson, 2016)! (Google Image.)
Why, and by what technological-mentalist means, was Altair-4, possibly the first, but certainly the final homeland of the extinct Krell, deliberately destroyed by its last obviously sentient mammal visitors from afar, the curious traveling human exploration, salvage and exploitation team mission-dispatched by the United Planets to voyage for six months to Altair-4? [The Krell are unconnected to that dastardly filmic Krall person in
Star Trek Beyond
(2016).] Altair-4 might be said to symbolize our developing “Internet of Things”—that “Internet of Things” concept [a Krell Internet, or potential spin-off of today’s Earthly Google nuclearized?] not clearly voiced until AD 1999, first by Kevin Ashton—gifted with self-capabilities that includes the man-made as
well some of Nature’s other creatures (Pschera, 2016) and features (Gabrys, 2016)! [What should our ever-tightening relationship with machines mean? Machines are things that no other animal species in the Earth-bioshell can mimic.] This chapter will offer a new, early-2017 AD geoscientific-Macro-Imagineering perspective on the colorful story- telling of the
cinematic-creation 1956 event-process! Interestingly, AD 2016 was the 400th anniversary of William Shakespeare’s death as well as the 500th anniversary of Thomas More’s
. The apprehension offered herein is, more or less, in the same popular genre as Rod Pyle’s
Blueprint for a Battlestar: Serious Scientific Explanations Behind Scifi’s Greatest Inventions
(2016) and Chris Pak’s
Terraforming: Ecopolitical Transformations and Environmentalism in
(2016) with just a hint of Hugo Priemus and Bert van Wee’s
International Handbook on Mega-Projects
(2014) shaken, not stirred, by J.P. Tellote’s
Science Fiction TV
CAVE-human Virtually Engages Reality
Pitiably, our troglodyte ancestors hunkered at the mouth of natural caves for shelter from Nature’s inclemency, to use sunlight, moonlight and starlight, and to benefit from refreshing wind-promoted ventilation. In other words, humans had not quite decided to enter the spaceship-like capsules we nowadays call buildings (Zenovia, 2016)! With the use of controlled fire, human troglodytes advanced further inside available and penetrable caves, becoming ever more reliant on technology to maintain comfortable and healthy bodily ambient surroundings. Truly, perhaps it was the almost uncountable stars overhead that initially provoked star-gazing humans to ponder the ultimate actual and potential life-carrying capacity of the scientifically known Universe (Gantevoort et al., 2016)! If we imagine Earth as a gigantic spherical “eyeball”, looking in all directions, so that at any single moment, it could “see” only 9,096 stars designated Magnitude 6.5, according to astronomer Dorrit Hoffleit (1907-2007). [See: Plato,
(47a-b).] As Plato unveils in
(516b), with reference to
his intriguing Parable of the Cave, it is only subsequent to actually seeing the Sun by a single harshly guided captive’s lone excursion that it then became possible for him to study temporarily, and subsequently reason about, that immense, bright ovoid object in the Earth’s clear daytime sky, and to define its sensible properties in his own mind, as well as to later relate to other ignorant prisoners confined in the back of the Cave his personal intellectual insights derived from his brief, constrained “Prisoner’s Tour” (Berlucchi, 2011). All post-Ice Age geoscientific thinking is done by intuitive and/or trained persons, such varied people naturally having all the physique and character flaws as well as strengths common to living humans (Homo sapiens individuals)! An understanding of our total being, of our experience and self- knowledge and the world is the essential valid objective for practicing Science.
A recursive abbreviation, CAVE is still used to label the “Cave Automatic Virtual Environment” electronic display installation housed, since 1992, in an 8.64 cubic meter room at the University of Illinois’ Electronic Visualization Laboratory in Chicago, USA. CAVE provides an immersive environment of high-resolution graphics projected in stereo onto the room’s walls and floor. Inconveniently, its human users must don stereo mini-television eye-coverings, all-too-physically clumsy forms of uncomfortable apparel/headgear, to properly appreciate the colorful generated CAVE views. Even more technically advanced CAVE- like facilities have been developed elsewhere within Earth’s enclosing bio-shell [because the volume referenced is not a ball, it is a misnomer to use the term “biosphere” but widespread media usage often overshadows scientific accuracy] during this planet’s post-1945-1950 AD global ceno-Anthropocene Geologic Time. Folks using “Google Earth VR” platforms since AD 2017 have grown used to such invigorating immersive experiences using only electronics. According to its script, the Krell of
were intellectually a million years ahead of the visiting humans: interestingly, the astronomer and physicist Dr.
Edward R. Harrison postulated that a million years hence descendants of our species-minds might be contemplating creation of a new Universe, possibly the result of a “…planned project to test the feasibility of cosmogenesis, or to establish universes more hospitable to intelligent life, or, in a more speculative vein, to transfer from one universe to another” (Harrison, 1995 , page 201; Dick, 2012).
During 1965 AD, Ivan Edward Sutherland (born 1938),
, suggested “The Ultimate [interactive] Display would, of course, be a room within which the computer can control the existence of matter….With appropriate programming such a display could literally be the Wonderland into which Alice walked” (Sutherland, 1965, page 508). Sutherland’s proposed “machine room”—really an audio-visual dedicated computer’s insides made amenable to demanding totalizing persons, perhaps equipped with modern-day plastic and metal material electronic printer technology—was far beyond any device macro-imagined during the 20st
Century, or even the early years of the 21st
Century’s integrated electronic or near-term future networked quantum computer graphics special effects-laden Sci-Fi movies (Larson, 2008; Anderson, 2011; Tang et al., 2016). Our current imperfect cyberspace is only a particular possibility of true Spatiography and Geography (Rid, 2016; Cathcart, 2014).
A Krell-style planet core-centralized material auto-creation machine-power-plant installed more than 2,000 centuries earlier (see
)—a deadly product of social telesis of just that kind foolishly built to alter worldly reality by responding to any Krell creature’s every personal whim—destroyed the movie’s super-being Krell Civilization of a fictional Earth-resembling world named Altair-4. In other words, their creation exceeded mere navigation of a Virtual Reality by thought— instead it linked seamlessly with all Krell creatures and features of Altair-4: the vision portrayed in
by its dominant Sci-Fi script-writer was of all Krell brains interfacing with the ultimate Real Reality, awkwardly so to speak! [Russian philosopher V.I. Vernadsky
elaborated, during 1924 AD, on his idea of Earth’s dawning “Noosphere”, a planetary phenomenon nowadays inherent to Earth Systems Geoscience—its basis was his concept that
human thought would come to play a critical role in future whole Earth change
(Guillaume, 2014). Is there a dreadful Krell Machine in humankind’s future?] Real Reality is, of course, beyond Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality. Static three-dimensional physical printing (Llewellyn-Jones et al., 2016) today presents an attractive alternative to visual representation of data-sets as images on television screens. As of AD 2016, aerial JOLED technology came closest to the postulated future media shown as a possibility in
—that is, interactive physical visualization using Janus-objects as physical voxels, a unit of three-dimensional functional magnetic resonance imaging physicalized as moveable and touchable physical pixels (Sahoo et al., 2016)!
Even with the current predominance of ever-advancing CGI special-effects R&D,
remains a widely-admired Hollywood-made Sci-Fi movie because of its sheer spectacle. Pulp Macro-Imagineering, as displayed herein by Team Geographos’ willful effort, descriptively labels the emergence into Macro-Engineering’s professional-awareness of a scholarly discipline heavily influenced by a thematic literary genre called Sci-Fi. What follows is Team Geographos’ unique, non-standard interpretation of the very popular 1956’s film’s meaning, intellectually and psychologically, as finally assembled and paginated on 17 March 1955 by Cyril Hume (1900-1966). “Ironically, the Universe that Science stripped of the supernatural is being resupplied with deities and redemptive purposes by science-fiction writers and moviemakers” (Herrick, 2009, pages 20-25). Just what might humanity’s imago dei become if, and whenever, Homo sapiens has changed/evolved or been surpassed by AI robots [overtaken intellectually by techno sapiens, as designated by Antje Jackelen (2002)? So, in that vein, the Macro-Imagineering community’s leading Team Geographos members sought any answer to the perplexing
question: What if I.E. Sutherland’s robust wish/dream/fantasy/think materialization machine, situated in the rocky innards of Earth, ever actually came into existence, operated solely by Homo sapiens spatially confined to our naturally changing Solar System? Other, possibly far- out, thoughts emerged subsequently.
Dr. Ivan Edward Sutherland, circa 1960s. (Google Images.)
A Story’s Sci-Fi Screen-site Seer
Jay P. Telotte devoted Chapter Five of
Replications: A Robotic History of the Science Fiction Film
(1995) to an enlargement of what has become the not necessarily correct standardized narrative analysis—
-style—interpretation to which Telotte slavishly subscribes, and first promoted, during AD 1989. Perhaps his book-title’s “robotic” actually is inadvertently descriptive of his own homogenized writings on this particular subject as well as that of many others too? Telotte’s viewpoint on
is reasonably acceptable although not especially insightful but, strangely, Telotte consistently misspelled “Krell” as “Krel”, that is one piece of convincing evidence he probably never actually read Cyril Hume’s phantasmagoric logic shooting typescript followed by the film’s Director, its adventurous male actors and its only charming actress who, seductively garbed Hollywood-style, ultimately portends future humankind’s generalized motherhood via implied liaison with the supremely manly Commander
J.J. Adams. All the on-screen action, where birds twitter, tiger’s roar
and people talk, takes place in the mini-Garden of Eden that is Professor Edward Mobius’s Altair-4 homestead previously established and nurtured by human-discovered and excavated Krell technology.
It is our thought that Cyril Hume was unaware of, or deliberately concealed, some of its readable effective religious, scientific, artistic and visualized symbolism in his working script and, therefore, he did not defeat himself. In Team Geographos’ certain estimation, the final- version screenplay of
deserves to be generally considered the most perfect example of a dormant Alien ecology yet penned, published or play-acted, for it entails nothing less than an example of an instantaneous subtractive “de-terraforming”, and Krellocene termination, of an arid celestial body far, far away from our barely-known Solar System as well an startling expose of the possible impending caducity of Homo sapiens, already enduring a contemporary, global sensorial displacement from Nature since, nowadays, the global Internet has almost converted the Earth- biosphere into a thing akin to peeled human skin! Too, people everywhere increasingly seem to be adhering to a disabling species- wide groupthink. It is Team Geographos’ desire to promote an eco- faction that is semi-ignited by a Sci-Fi interpretation consisting of reliable fact/feasible factoid Science forming its explicative Macro- Imagineering assessment.
In terms of its geographical soundscape, the recorded background noise soundtrack for
is extra-ordinarily quiet—except for the speaking-role humans, their various humming and buzzing machines and some Earth-derived roaring animal offspring wandering the film’s stunningly, even hauntingly beautiful green-sky set, there is no audience-noticeable background noise, and of course not even when Altair-4 explodes soundlessly in interstellar space! This is odd because there are no relics in Altair-4, every subsurface piece of Krell equipment is working or is on call for operation! Clearly, the theatrical dramatic emphasis is on the utter dearth of life’s potential enrichment
were Altair-4 to remain whole, and the Krell civilization’s remainders to continuously operate!
Why? Team Geographos believes/thinks that Cyril Hume, more than a decade after World War II, wished to warn humans of the possibility of an enervating and crippling future world-civilization pervading “cargo cult” outlook [the first professionally documented Earthly anthropologic cases date from 1885 AD, but the words “cargo cult” were not introduced in print-media until about AD 1945] by Homo sapiens outlook—that is, a Krell hoard of ultra-technology, whose discovery by Professor Edward Morbius is accidental, might seem to fall inexplicably from Heaven and, therefore, might forestall Homo sapiens’ own intelligence-guided planning and hard work! In other words, the so-called “Hope” remaining within the Krell’s “Pandora’s Box”, Altair-4, must be eliminated forever, lest overpowering Evil befall other creatures situated throughout the foreseeable physical Universe, whatever its true volume. Some knowledge should be forbidden (Kourany, 2016).
Exploration Reversed, Destruction of Krell “Pandora’s Box”
Cyril Hume’s exotically reflexive but never seen Krell were portrayed as a hyper-rational, scientifically objective, technologically manipulative Alien species, driven by a libido sciendi, with the misfortune to invent and use a machine that automatically enabled all their thoughts to be instantly realized in three-dimensional material. Their enormously large, big volume, machine was not simply a generator of Virtual Realities, nor was it a theatrical deus-ex-machine! By the way, the Krell themselves may have been imagined as fatties for, according to Alien-physique speculator Fergus Simpson who alleges that “…since population density is widely observed to decline with increasing body mass, we conclude that most intelligent species are expected to exceed 300 kg [kilograms in body weight]” Simpson, 2016, page L59).
After losing their affection for Altair-4’s biosphere—a Nature eradicated means it was impossible for the Krell to have self- knowledge—at the apex of their scientific and Macro-Engineering prowess, the super-intelligent Krell then linked their super-luminal direct material-creation machine to an unimaginably powerful centralized electricity-generating supra-infrastructure, which had come to replace most of Altair-4’s original planetary interior (Cirkovic, 2015, pages 10-11)—an obvious important visualization image omission of an important powerhouse technicality by the screen-writer Cyril Hume is that it is never clearly stated anywhere during the course of the movie’s story unfoldment whether that geological fact includes a majority of the crust, parts of the planet’s mantle or, possibly its Nature-given core materials. The power-plant’s output was sourced from 9,200 thermonuclear reactors occupying 6,880 cubic kilometers of the
planet’s core region, which made [perpetually apparently] 10
Watts— our Sun, bycomparison, generates about 3.82 X 10
which had been instantly available to the last living Krell individual 200,000 years previously!
Professor Morbius leading a 3-man talking-tour of one of the Krell’s 9,200 underground powerhouses. The planet Altair-4 is, in fact, a gigantic machine; “machine” is used precisely to mean that complex material device, assembled by the absent Krell, and meant to perfect “mass production” of anything, anywhere, at any time from pure energy! (Google Images.)
That last Krell creature was, perhaps, an overzealous exceptionally able rogue individual; or, possibly, Hume had in his mind’s-eye a pervasive bureau-pathology vision—that is, a dysfunctional and irrational aspect of a worldwide bureaucracy that forced the end upon all it could survey and rule, including its membership! In the insolence of their endlessly expansive technological successes, the irreversibly corrupted Krell tried to usurp the power of God; since Krell technology had imprinted everything of Altair-4, no thing or living creature therein is ever again wholly Holy. As God prevented materialization and land- artwork signing of the Tower of Babel by rebels, so He treated the Krell to an even worse termination phase experience—the thoroughly unpleasant and extinctive experience stemming from the effectual, merciless administrations of a magnificently compliant, almost totally robotized terrestrial-type planet. Summarizing, ultimately the Krell did not avoid groupthink, eliminate ego-drive behavior or successfully foster inter-personal trust and openness. Sadly, today in the progressing real-world that is the ever-anthropic Earth-biosphere, published scholarly scientific reports issued are dominated by teams, whereas academics at one time, mainly before World War II, published their scholarly reports on their own; today, far too many persons in media and in academia have already abandoned their proper roles as conduits to the world-public for scientifically and historically verified facts to selfishly promote selected social and geopolitical agendas!
Cyril Hume intentionally “cast” Altair-4 as his selected symbol for the portrayal of Nature/God, and it became a “forbidden planet”—that is, a mostly dryland robotized Alien world the must become off-limits to
all Earthlings as well as all other sentient and souled beings because it suffered a Krell-induced harsh inquisition so undeniably far beyond our own present-day planet Earth’s imposed ceno-Anthropocene, most usually today typified by doom-dominated forecasts/predictions, as to boggle the considerate, moral human mind! Team Geographos suggests that Altair-4 made into plasma is the discontinuation or initiation an equivalent of Astronomy’s “Great Silence” (Brin, 1983)—so far in human history, thereafter the absence of any detectable activities, manifestations or obtainable artifacts indisputably originating from another world’s Aliens—especially as Cyril Hume revealed in his penultimate movie script that the Krell had captured animals living on Earth and brought some of them to Altair-4 to reproduce. Lions and tigers, oh my! 200,000 years ago, humans were barely human yet, and quite uncivilized, those animals and such must have been intended for some unstated use [Krell zoo, future repopulation of Earth or other terrestrial-type planets? Oddly, these Earth-derived creatures were unaffected by the Krell machine of death].
Our modern-day technologists often elaborate that Science’s future breakthroughs lie within a currently “forbidden zone”, a realm beyond humankind’s extant domain of extrapolative ability; indeed, rectangle-shaped human technologists are forever analyzing and synthesizing ventures into their respective profession’s “forbidden zone”. During their last awful mass murder/mass suicide moment of their species’ existence, the deltoid-shaped Krell creatures,
, knew they had unwittingly exterminated themselves when these two machines magnified their unconscious impulses—that is, the irrational welled up and came to command their rational minds. At the same moment, their expertise also neutralized Satan via an unexpected technological fix: if the Krell no longer exist, then they can never ever be “tempted”. In other words, after accidently inventing a new evolutionary experience (auto-extinction), the Krell, without any assistance from hyper-real estate agents, experienced the final,
agonizing, less than 0.7 second moment of their diminutive species’ long lifetime in a Krell Id-ruled Altair-4 “Global Village”, instead of an ancient Greek-style city-state society consisting of whole, normal Krell creatures!
A common fatty passageway Krell doorway. Cyril Hume’s super-intelligent creatures apparently were shaped like those aluminum foil-wrapped chocolaty American commercial goodies called Hershey-Kisses! Its regular, but odd to common human experience, outline may indicate pointy-headed intellectuals with bodies resembling cartooned Tweedledee and Tweedledum! Since the humans are not encumbered by space, pressure or environmental suits it means, as Dr. Morbius and his daughter demonstrate, that the Krell planet is a
place for people! (Google Image.)
Savvy, but unsaved creatures, they then knew, soul-sickeningly, that they had succumbed to Satan’s bait. Operating in planet-wide concert, the Krell’s brainstorming innovation, part of which is palpable and part of which is invisible (thus, it cannot be totally envisioned) duplicates the “Human Vaporizer” of George Orwell’s
(1949) and “The Machine”, which also dissolves persons, supplied by Yevgeny Zamyatin in
(1920). [Humanity’s world is both blessed and cursed by our species’ ever more globalized Internet, which by 2016 AD served more than 2.7 billion users (out of 7.2 billion humans on this planet) of a system of
text-and cognitive-based services that requires substantially more knowledge of any user than viewing television or speaking long- distances with telephony. The internationalized Internet uses a large amount of our world’s generated electricity supply (Horner et al., 2016). To date, Team Geographos has been unable to find any definitive statement by adherents of professional Macro-Engineering on the future relationship of the Solar System-wide Internet and the Earth’s biosphere during the future ceno-Anthropocene. The Krell foolishly manufactured a big machine from which no secret act, or secret thought, was ever actually secret (Broeders, 2016)!
No individual Krell creature survived to write a book boasting an attractively grand and teasing book-sales shelf title such as
The End of History
(Rupke, 1998); the conception of an absolute, compleat termination is sublime, quite beyond everyday language usage because of its difficult comprehensibility! We do know for sure that there was, for Earth, a Geologic Time segment before any life appeared (Kowaleski et al., 2011). A single psychically-wounded Krell survivor, using unnoticed Lazarusian Krell technology, after all, might cause an instant return to existence of the entire Krell populace as imagined by that last survivor alone—perhaps an ugly recreation, but certainly not resurrected Krell creatures. The last instant of Altair-4’s Geologic Time, previously herein called “Krellocene”, the Krell’s sadly unique Psychozoic Era moment, terminated in a schizo-second saturated with nihilistic delusion. Prior to the instant of their violent, unanticipated deaths, Krell thinkers had not painstakingly contemplated their species’ end in a broad way—another guess needed to be included in their eschatology. These are not banal generalizations! To our minds, Robby—the adorable anthropomorphic robot character in
(played by a diminutive male actor encased in a yet-to-become- fashionable high-technology suiting, symbolizes what may be happening to Homo sapiens. Humans may eventually become a Krell- like group of creatures. Robby, really a 219 centimeter-tall mechanical
suiting for enclosure of the short American actor Bob May (1939-2009), cost USD$125,000 in AD 1956 to design and put together and did provide some uncontroversial comic relief. However, by AD 2016, its estimated replication cost had escalated to, at least, USD$1,000,000+ to identically fabricate!
Robby [the irrepressibly dutiful] Robot, here charmingly framed in an image taken from
(1956). In that film, humans possessed no anthropomorphic robots, so they had to visit Altair-4 to meet one for the first time! Robby was capable of making diamond nanothreads for luxurious fabric coverings for the film’s sole, and prettiest girl Altaira, Professor Morbius’ daughter, a feat not actually accomplished until sixty years later (Zhan et al., 2016)! Both the spationauts crewing the spaceship and Robby behave as intermediary drones, and both do leave Altair-4 safely. Possibly Robby the Robot was shaped after pre-historic humans since it is a given that Krell visitors interacted with Earth’s bioshell. (Google Image.)
Sigmund Freud’s conceptual and terminological innovation, the “Id”, was assumed to be that part of the human psyche that contains the life and death instincts; Freud (1856-1939) envisioned the operative properties of the “Id” as the main source of “physic energy” over which the human “Ego” gains as children age in order to organize the human individual’s personality. Academia’s sociology commonly presumes that
an idealized global human noosystem—currently there are more than
190 such United Nations Organization-recognized ecosystem-nation units that are the basic components of our world’s public—is a concert of shared human consciousness. Logically, any ideal human noosystem is also a concert of shared unconsciousness! Krell creature sinning whilst simultaneously and inseparably embedded within Altair-4’s cyberspace of
—the Spiritism counseled against in
The Holy Bible
at Deuteronomy 120: 10-12—was fatal.
A conventional movie lore, such as the genuinely reliable
Encyclopedia of Science Fiction
(1993) by John Clute and Peter Nicholls, or even the sometimes spurious on-line encyclopedia
, always characterize Cyril Hume’s fascinating final shooting script as merely an unpretentious rehash William Shakespeare’s very last play,
, and unfailingly refer to the movie’s hideous, gargantuan Id-monster as equivalent to Shakespeare’s play-character “Caliban”. For Shakespeare (1564-1616), however, “Caliban” was a composite character fashioned to represent the primitive, variously-hued peoples of the Earth-biosphere—to Europeans, people with extraordinary skin pigmentation—resident in isolated, distant lands far from Europe only then recently discovered by explorers, as these unfamiliar strangers had by then been incompletely described anthropologically, but only in traveler’s tales and corporate and governmental intelligence reports. Onscreen, the Id-monster’s electricity-forged skin is multi-hued on screen (green, red, yellow and purple). The Authorized or King James Version of
The Holy Bible
(1611) is commonly cited simply as “1611 bible”.
(1611) introduced by Act IV, Scene 1 our still- pregnant phrase of post-AD 1874 philosophical debate [“Nature and Nurture”], which epitomizes the idea of separate influences on the individual organism arising from heredity and planetary environment.
Perfected future immersion in materially three-dimensional realities may induce unhealthy desires in human minds—something far worse than today’s violent video pornography—that could give physical
existence to unwise acts and biblical sin, causing our existing Earth- biosphere and future terraformed planets (Mars, possibly) to become negatively impacted geographical places.
ought to be embraced as an impressive mene-tekel warning: our self-created near- term future Real Reality must be used selectively so that unhealthy appetites are not wetted in Homo sapiens (Daniel 5: 25-28). Cyril Hume’s Krell sought a quickly realizable Golden Age—a delusion of obsessive infantile wishing. Krell dreamers, living vigorous normal creature lives (like the espoused ideal of Ancient Greece) excided of gruesomely destructive Id tantalizations, might have recreated an Altair-4 biosphere with diverse species plant and animal populations, restoring their almost unnatural terrestrial-type planet to what it was before their enshrouding civilization—like the human pride of the skyscraper—became a tottering Utopia of the seemingly socially adjusted which knowingly opened the trap-door to the destructive unbuffered horror of mass public hallucinations. The Krellocene Geologic Time period was, in fact, always an abyss of Krell species- degrading misery. Located outside the pale of Judeo-Christian civilization, the Krell were self-trained barbarians.
Can any human imagine a scientifically or sociological highly probable event-process, other than a horrible real species auto- extinction should Homo sapiens or its organic replacements or nonorganic descendants ever put together an Ivan Edward Sutherlandish mind-reading direct material-creation machine? The late Arthur C. Clarke’s
The City and the Stars
(1956) imagined a far-future anthropocentric Earth-biosphere’s inhabitants cooperating with Aliens on the construction of a disembodied intelligence; the beloved Sci-Fi writer Clarke’s pure mentality fiction was to search for “…a true picture of the Universe” unencumbered by any actual physical limitations. The CAVE can impart a contradictory experience, a feeling of simultaneously being enclosed in a claustrophobic capsule and wandering unbounded geographic space. [Such disconcerting visual places are called “Ganzfeld
Spaces”.] Other than these two unpleasant reactions, normal human persons ordinarily tend not to be otherwise stimulated. But I.E. Sutherland’s post-CAVE machine would be excitingly simulative and very, very situational. Of the newly professionalized humans theorizing currently about Terraforming our Solar System’s planets and moons, is there one member of that elite learned pack of would-be extra- terrestrial industrialists that will renounce any and all use of such a tricky, wish-granting, auto-cathartic Devilish gizmo?
Since the Krell civilization was not entirely hypogeal, before its “unbreakable” Krell Metal composed aerial portion crumbled from decay caused by eons of natural weathering and erosion during a post- Krellocene Altair-4 time period lasting five million years, Altair-4 had the appearance of Sci-Fi writer James Graham Ballard’s imagined multi- story, bioshell shaped Space Age world city enclosing Earth (Cathcart, 2002), but in a totally decrepit state. Ballard’s humongous edifice was a warehouse crowded with people, a monumental ultracomputer- regulated epidermis covering our homeland. The
depiction of the crust-surface remains of Altair-4 screened a planetary surface that has the inviting and delightful appearance of a popular Mediterranean Sea Basin climate regime-landform zone (exactly like those of Southern California when Cyril Hume wrote in Hollywood). When the crew and passengers of the United Planets interstellar Cruiser C-57-D first examine Altair-4 closely, they do not yet understand that they are treading on just 50% of the Krell’s original above-grade infrastructure [modernly termed “techno-fossils”—literally the Krell’s planetary footprint preserved below grade (Zalasiewicz et al., 2014)], situated halfway between a fiery Hell [its 9,200 centralized functioning
nuclear reactors] and a Heaven that even an early-21st Century radical
Green activist would love (the sky has a pleasingly enjoyable permanent green hue) (Elden, 2013)! The same year
enthralled moviegoers, Frank Lloyd Wright (1869-1959) proposed “The Illinois”, a technically doable macro-project centered on a tripod-shaped 1.2
kilometer-high skyscraper with a deeply penetrating taproot foundation, which featured futuristic nuclear-powered elevators as well as heliports installed at various floor levels. With almost the mass of our Solar System’s planet Venus, Altair-4’s former superficial sub-aerial splendors, constructed of Krell Metal, could have towered 120 kilometers into its Statue of Liberty green sky. A similar reimaging of Earth, of course without the green-tinged sky yet, can be understood from Stephen Graham’s
Vertical: The City from Satellites to Bunkers
When United Planets Cruiser C-57-D initially deploys near Altair- 4—the fourth planet from the star Altair—a huge relief map-like visual aid is projected that fully fills the movie screen, clearly showing aquamarine-shaded seas and brownish continents with Sahara-like dune fields, plains and obviously rugged mountain ranges. In this particular section of the movie, the C-57-D’s captain-leader, Commander J.J. Adams, announces to his unshakably loyal crewmen (there are no female members of its crew; later, these well-mannered fellows rediscover the opposite sex on this bizarre world of only two persons who are not an Adam and Eve couple) that Altair-4’s “…oxygen [gas] content [is] 4.7 richer than Earth standard, gravity only .897”. If the oxygen gas content of Altair-4 were really 98.7% by volume, it would be decidedly unhealthy for humans! Laboratory results from plant physiology experiments, work designed since the 1950s to assess differences in green plant growth in outer space as well as on terrestrial-type planets (Poulet et al., 2016), indicate that green plants can still grow in an atmosphere that is about 40% oxygen, but not air of 98.7% oxygen! [The lower limit for combustion of organic materials, such as wood and moss, is an atmospheric oxygen gas content of 15%.] Uncontrollable wildfire would pose an ever-present menace! Team Geographos, therefore, concludes that Cyril Hume’s odd technical specification statement, mouthed by Commander J.J. Adam’s, is biologically uninformed techno-babble (May, 2017; Grazier and Cass,
2015). [The Commander’s surname is interesting from a minor literary standpoint: mentioned first in Genesis 2:19, “Adam” was the name of the first human and the “Adam’s Apple”, a projection in the front part of the human male’s neck caused by thyroid cartilage, is supposed to symbolize the apple from the Garden of Eden.]
Finally, to achieve the action-film’s achievement of “The End”, Altair-4 is blasted into rubble via a terrific, cinematically astounding anthropogenic spectacle: an explosion instigated because of an oneiric impulse, in order to safely remove its lurking “cargo cult” dangers, those damned linked machines, from Homo sapiens’ immediate grasp and distribution. The demolition is done on the specific command of Professor Edward Morbius, the fatherly philologist survivor from the crashed star-traveling spacecraft Cruiser Bellerophon, which was shattered by previous
Id-monster incarnations. Note, however, that Professor Morbius had, in terms of both status and fraternity, been deposed as his daughter’s only male idol, replaced by the contrastingly younger Commander Adams. The name “Morbius” seems to convey a subtle linguistic meaning—morbidity—in addition to mere passing geometric association with August Ferdinand Mobius (1790-1868). “Bellerophon”, from ancient Greek mythology, was a victim of slander pitted against the monstrous Chimera, which he successfully slew; the Chimera was a fire-spitting beast with the head of a lion, a body like that of a goat, and a tail that was a snake! After many other tests of his character and physique, Bellerophon completed his natural term of life as a beggar. J.P. Telotte’s thesis that Altair-4 (a planet-sized robot) and the Krell creatures were, so to speak, Siamese twins is an intriguing interpretation of the storyline. However, the standard iconological interpretation of
J.P. Tellote based his interesting and singular opinion is, in the estimation of Team Geographos, inadequate.
Lastly, it is our collective contention that Cyril Hume 1900-1966) included far more Christian religious thoughts and beliefs than any
published interpretation has recognized and revealed, so far. David Hume (1711-1776) was skeptical of the philosophical proposition by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) that our world, Earth, was designed as the best of all possible worlds. Cyril Hume may have thought otherwise. And, it was David Hume who philosophized in AD 1779 that, rather than an omnipotent God, reasonably competent human laborers could have produced the Earth, which humans now sometimes gratefully and joyously inhabit because our direct Homo sapiens predecessors had endured all the necessary trials and errors to do it correctly! The nascent community of Terraforming professionals can only be thrilled by this historical tidbit. After all, Macro-Engineering inspired by Nature, or biomimicry as it is often termed, can be functionally indistinguishable from the remaining natural world we see surrounding us. Appearances, after all, can deceive.In terms strictly of the polished moral lesson script-writer Cyril Hume wished to impart with
, it is starkly obvious: figuratively, “The End” came at the first moment of film-frame where Professor Morbius directed, by oral dialogue instruction, Commander J.J. Adams to slide the easily unlocked triggering rod downwards, thus initiating the planet-core nuclear chain-reaction overload event-process which was to end in another Solar System’s alteration by addition of a new star. See:
, below, which is a Google Image. The Krell planet’s “kill switch” is both scarily and oddly accessible to anyone for any purpose, even for childish play or to teenage pranksters!
Overall, the extinct Krell had tried to imitate/duplicate the Universe’s Ultimate Being [God]. So, not only were the Krell defeated by the God- installed long-forgotten unconscious “Id” of their species’ unaware or unwary minds, but weirdly they had themselves thoughtfully installed a very convenient total machine on/off firing-circuit interrupter to govern their otherwise inadequately or improperly safeguarded active macro- object robotic machine creation—and, most revealingly, of all possible plotline outcomes devisable by Cyril Hume, their reverse dead-man governor was placed inside a subterranean Altair-4 school classroom…for Krell children! Therein, Krell youths were tested and educated via the machine’s tri-bud head-set apparatus.
Humans have already realized that it is necessary, for the future progress of our high-technology civilization, to patent computers as inventors, just as normally U.S.A. capitalists currently conceive publicly- owned corporations as persons in U.S.A. taxation laws (Abbott, 2016). Sentient tools—socially aware AI tools accommodating the anticipated needs of human co-workers—are already available and at work in factories and laboratories because of near-fantastic technological progress as well as economic and human cultural shifts (Johnson, 2016).
Krell children, being educated in a non-Green, windowless “basement” schoolroom, were users of the machine on the middle left- side, topped by a triangular transparent covering, of this captured film- frame imagery. Notice the close proximity to the core-sited limitless nuclear power-plant’s overload trigger! (Google Image.)
Team Geographos hazards a reasoned guess that screen-writer Cyril Hume might have envisioned that one-room subterranean receptacle, for a few supervising Krell adults and school-children, as a potential radioactive fallout shelter (Popeik, 2016) that is foresightedly equipped with a suicide schoolroom devise to be used in the utter absence of “Hope” or “Faith”. Possibly, it is a pre-Ego development child’s innocence in non-collaborative playfulness—Krell or otherwise— that is basic Super-Intelligence, and could have “saved” the allegedly benevolent and kindly Krell civilization from extermination by its own invented and enveloping fabricated centralized energy-harnessing device! It is possible that human wisdom is the guarantor of the human mind; without wisdom the human mind can perceive no meaning to life, no purpose that is valuable. Thus, it may be impossible for any human to live without a mind endowed with wisdom, however intensely expressed that wisdom might be in the world.
The human world-public’s profound ongoing engagement with Sci-Fi themes indirectly assists human beings to evade successfully inapplicable formal educational biases that encourage(d) severely inappropriately lineal assumptions about the pre-conditions, and potential origination, of thoroughly technology-saturated telluric planet bioshells (Szerszynski, 2016).
(1818) posed a question nowadays asked of Artificial Intelligence robotics and Molecular Nanotechnology research workers: is actual development a true mortal threat to humans? Yes, in some circumstances—competitive exclusion is a form of extinctive “death spiral” (Dominy and Yeakel, 2016)!
Abbott, R. (2016) I Think, Therefore I Invent: Creative Computers and the Future of Patent Law.
Boston College Law Review
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5(2) 75- 95.
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Memorie della Societa Astronomica Italiana
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Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society
Broeders, D. (2016) The Secret in the Information Society.
Cathcart, R.B. (July 1983) A Megastructural End to Geologic Time.
Journal of the British Interplanetary Society
Cathcart, R.B. (March 2002) Unnatural Envelopment: Fieldwork on the Active Tectonics of J.G. Ballard’s “Build-Up” (1957).
Journal of Geoscience Education
Cathcart, R.B. (2014)
Medicative Macro-Engineering: Earth + Mars Megaprojects.
Burbank, CA: Geographos. 511 pages.
Cirkovic, M.M. (2015) Kardashev’s Classification at 50+: A Fine Vehicle with Room for Improvement.
Serbian Astronomical Journal
No. 191: 1- 15.
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Elden, S. (May 2013) Secure the Volume: Vertical Geopolitics and the Depth of Power.
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Gabrys, J. (2016)
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Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage
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Watch Southern California’s Blue Skies! (For Wind-Wafted Bad Weed Seed!)
Given that humans are currently adapted to nearly all the extant but naturally variable climate regimes of Earth’s ceno-Anthropocene bio-shell, high rates of change during continuing Geologic Time risk large maintenance costs for infrastructure, no matter what regional climate regimes might be considered to be optimal for humanity’s long- term sub-aerial survival and prosperity. Climate regimes naturally affect the prevalence and growth rates of most biota exposed to air. This chapter’s title comes from Bill Warren’s
Keep Watching the Skies! American Science Fiction Movies of the Fifties
(1997). However, the signature alerting phrase “Keep watching the skies” derives from a staged radio-dialogue statement issued by a news-gathering organization’s on-site agent, “Ned ‘Scotty’ Scott” played by the actor Douglas Spencer (1910-1960).
, below, a Google Image.
From a non-Russian above-the-Arctic-Circle research station located on North America, in the Hollywood film
THE THING From Another World
(1951) came this radio-broadcast clarion-cry for Earthlings to be ultra- vigilant against Earth bioshell invasion, especially by vegetable Aliens. Meantime, Nature represented by the Earth’s only civilized animal
species, has read, seen and heard real-world news reports of massive jellyfish—planet-native class Scyphozoa—invasions in various regions of the Earth-ocean. One normal Green adherent-reporter of Biology, playing off “Sci-Fi” and “zoic”, termed the sensationally exposed disruptive bobbing blob jellyfish invasions as “SciFizoa” incursions (Burton, 2015; Patwa et al., 2015). Actual jellyfish have nematocysts on their tentacles which exude venom explosively when stimulated by prey; precursor, or more accurately the model, for the Sci-Fi film creature
Still-frame extricated from the movie’s exposed and developed reeled film, recording the ominous pulsating emergence, from a gently landed meteor, of the corrosive Alien “amoeba” that absorbs and grows by consuming various enveloped living Earth creatures, seemingly becoming redder and redder in coloration with each endless “meal” of available digestible flesh! Keep Watching the Ground and Ocean too! [The 15,000
observed near-Earth asteroid, designated 2016 TB57, was discovered on 13 October 2016.] (Google
In the often arcane jargon of professional Sociology, an “echo- chamber” is the state of social learning—the learning process of observing and imitating other persons’ behaviors—in which individual performances are deteriorated by excessive observation of others— copy-cat thinking and doing. Until an Artificial Intelligence Effect first
comes to the fore and dominates our planet’s bioshell (Jordan, 2016), human rationality remains constrained, and Homo sapiens cannot avoid coping with uncertainty in the natural real-world decision-making processes. In such rather everyday common situations, it is quite rational to observe the actions/reactions of other persons and to generally copy their choices of behaviors. The performance of humans is improved by social learning, and that result is, sometimes, termed the “Collective Intelligence Effect”. Unfortunately, behavioral cascades of copy-cat behaviors seem to cause a group-wide tendency to choose the majority [“consensus”?] choice of behavior even if an individual strongly thinks or believes the minority option is correct or optimal! The most realistic benefit of social learning is that it costs less than asocial or individual learning where a person obtains information with decisive individual effort. Such is the current state of climatology: the public-bickering conflict between those radical Greens adamantly proclaiming a coming global climatic catastrophe, climate regime alterations and collapses, and cooler head who do not share that alarmist view of our homey planet’s geophysical future. The upshot:
this confrontation over developing climate regimes gave Team Geographos a nifty book title! It is copy-cat behavior, 20
Century industrialization fostering mega-urbanization, may lead to a strange new Homo sapiens future: Molecular Nanotechnology may soon cancel all need for trade, but also reduce humankind’s clustered dependence on imported resources and products. Ultimately, as Team
Geographos will demonstrate in Chapter Five, even to survive an Alien perusal and attack, this technical development will necessitate no trade relations amongst humans!
Amongst Sci-Fi critic as well as Sci-Fi fan social groupings
was a rational money-earning cinema, a studio-made public entertainment. However, the geoscience community has, rather recently, come to the significant realization that on other terrestrial- type planets and moons, even asteroids, of our Solar System, as well as
on far-away but someday reachable exoplanets in the Universe, serious investigators must diligently search for ancient mines preserved beneath later-emplaced rock strata, rather than only aerial dust or fluvial sediment-covered ruined superficial urban conglomerations still bathed constantly by incoming cosmic and solar radiations: in other words, a global technofossil layer, located beneath an inactive global settlement layer, consisting of preserved machinery (strange compressed objects), as well as innumerable unknown microscopic material artifacts. 20
Century Sci-Fi film presaged this new
archaeological and geoscience discovery strategy in
Planet of the Apes
(1968) and even more emphatically represented in
Beneath Planet of the Apes
(1970) (Kibblewhite et al., 2015)! Bjorn Wallsten, an Swedish expert in sociotechnical systems engineering, has calmly codified relict anthropogenic geological deposits, and dubbed them “urks”, disconnected urban infrastructure that is abandoned in place, unremoved possibly for-ever (Wallsten, 2016; Graham, 2016)! Today,
7.3 billion persons live and work on about 7.6% of our planet’s landmass. One forever abandoned Wallsten “urk” might be a special, absolutely accidental massive emplacement of an Anthropic Rock, the so-called “Chernobyllium”, a molten mass which collected since AD 1986 at the bottom of the destroyed reactor, which was finally received a constructed capstone (an artificial dome) by AD 2016. The build-up of carbon dioxide gas content of Earth’s air is matched by the intended or unintended sequestration of man-made stuff within this terrestrial-type planet’s crust. [Earth’s current “Global Warming” may, in fact, be caused mostly by increased natural geothermal activity (Viterito, 2016) as well as magnified by its appearance in consonance with a natural Earthly geophysical cycle of 60 years duration (Gervais, 2016).] Costly modern drilling attempts that are designed ultimately to breach the Moho stratum, and to actually penetrate the Earth-mantle, gives us some inkling of the possible archaeological depth of any Alien mines!
Hibernating Life Mingled with Urks & Hibernating Infrastructure?
Ceno-Anthropocene is a Sci-Fi concept formalized in such a way so as to extract Homo sapiens from the Earth’s bioshell of long-familiar time and space to encourage the viewpoint from outer space, as if our blue planet were some distant object fully contemplatable as a global entity (Swanson et al., 2015). Errantly subjective Greenism’s popular media bellowed species self-hatred notion of a pristine Nature once utterly untouched by Homo sapiens is a concocted ideological platform because, without that invocation of past-time purity, “…how is one to define environment to be protected or preserved?” (Sayre, 2012, page 61). [“Environment”, in its totality, actually references the “known Universe”. If radical Greens are aware of this fact, then quite simply it means such persons, as well as groups of normal Greens, see themselves as corporeal God-like instructors of the hated anti-Green predominant persons and their social groupings!] Interestingly, for several recent decades, the radical Greens portrayed Earth’s Tropic Zone rainforests as the essence of truest evidence for Greenism’s authenticity, but with mounting properly-done biogeoscientific research, it now is certainly known that prehistoric peoples burned, cleared, farmed the rainforests and constructed vast urban conglomerations within the bounds of today’s tertiary rainforests (the Amazon River Basin, for example)! Thusly, ancient peoples left lasting evidential physical markings on the Earthly landscape and soils of every extant Tropic Zone rainforest (Curry, 2016; Becek and Horwath, 2017)!
Ambivalences of Outlandish Green Thinkers
Viewed through telescopes and other such visualizing devices, it is apparent that whilst red-colored and blue-colored galaxies are relatively common throughout our known Universe, rare green-colored galaxies also occur which are observed and calculated to be violently disrupted by the gravitational attraction of massive neighboring galaxies so that the green-colored galaxies lose their enveloping
gaseous bubbles rapidly; green-colored galaxies are sometimes also generated when super-massive Black Holes located at their centers cause almost inconceivably powerful explosions that massively “destroy” green-colored galaxies (Trayford et al., 2016). As a visible color, green is an ambivalent color suggestive of life, photosynthetic growth, Nature and hope as well as sickness, putrefaction and even “demonism” (Punt et al., 2016, page 277). Contrarily, the color red is usually associated with the inducement of risk averse and compliant human public behaviors. However, recent psychological evaluations seem to indicate that, amongst some humans, there can be another normal cognitive response, namely the arousal of non-compliant behaviors, including incurring physical, social and financial risks which may evoke strong sensations (Mehta et al. 2016).
Team Geographos simply asks: what color inspired Norman Borlaug (1914-2009), the famed American agronomist who fostered the high-yield crop boom in commercial agriculture whilst other scientists perfected high-yield explosives? By marked contrast, extensive lawns consisting of plastic green grass-blades—sometimes exhibited in the world-news media as inedible “permanent botanicals”—are becoming, more and more, a singular threat to the feed-browsing and other activities of wildlife! [During late-2016 AD, Astroturf LLC filed for bankruptcy after loss of a USA Patent Office dispute with its arch-rival FieldTurf synthetic-grass product.]
Zero K: A Novel
, a 2016-published Sci-Fi novel penned by Don DeLillo (born 1936) featured artificial gardens composed of plastic flowers and trees (SEE: Bletter et al., 2007; Stavrinidou et al., 2015).
[elvin temperature] is a specialized cryogenic encapsulation unit that, supposedly, will ensure transition of its human occupant to the “next level” beyond to avoid what is claimed by DeLillo to be a certain coming termination of a once livable Earth—in other words, an apocalyptic, “The End” Sci-Fi story. The on-going California drought, plus public urging by untrustworthy politicians and co-opted government bureaucracies using the popular news media
liberally, helped to spread the phony greenish outdoor plastic carpet in that State! Radicalized Greenism’s foolish, selfish and often self-serving propagandists, for more than five years, have advocated home-owners and others extract their freshwater-irrigated real lawns, replacing them with synthetic grass and mostly ugly xerophytes. In other words, sometimes, just anything green-colored that might resemble a real lawn but, alternatively, naturally Mars-red gravel is generally emplaced—perfect rocky mini-stuff to be blown away (via saltation) whenever El Nino-style ARK-storm winds eventually return to the currently too-sunny, too-little precipitation State of California! [Particulate blasting of neighboring structures and vehicles passing and parked outside will become superficially a macro-problem: abraded and, possibly, unprotected persons could be injured by fast-skipping “flying” pebbles!] Yet, amazingly, cheap and renewable hydrogen energy can now be obtained easily by simple chemical processing of industrially harvested fescue grass (Caravaca et al., 2016)!
Humankind “Smothered” by Unmowable Mutant Grass?
As of AD 2016, prognosticating Los Angeles County “futurist” politician posers, constantly and sometimes clandestinely advised by special-interest non-business social groups, must also hear soon from the folks, the imperiled citizenry! Entire coastal State of California neighborhoods have already been eroded by the naturally changeable Pacific Ocean and a possibly impending 21
Century sea-level rise, expressed at the State’s western margin, may accelerate that process- event in Los Angeles County’s harbors. Indeed, Team Geographos
foresees a macro-problem developing—even at Venice, State of California—caused by land subsidence that replicates what happened to Venice, Italy during the 1950s and 1970s (Trincardi et al., 2016)! The Los Angeles River, a basin outflow channel fully concreted in its main section since World War II, so that nowadays its “normal” summertime discharge to the Pacific Ocean at the City of Long Beach is 200% greater than before massive urban water-pipe leaks, partly treated wastewater
releases, and excessive decorative landscape irrigation of public and private properties augmented its unregulated 20
Century flowage (Townsend-Small et al., 2014). The on-going, five-year-long State-wide drought as well as faulty State Government policies, are nudging some prominent public officials, as well as their surrogates, toward ever- more locally resourced freshwater acquisitions and future reliance (Porse et al., 2016). “Grey Water”, a product of partial recycling effort, aimed at the public consumer is one media-touted idea favored by local politicians, who are, undoubtedly, mostly hydrated by costly freshwater
harvested and bottled freshwater taken from pristine nearby, and distant, mountain watersheds and artesian springs or the city’s tap- water rendered tasteless by expensive on-site multi-layered filtering systems. More and more, secretive and self-indulgent politicians voice their desire Los Angeles County groundwater be utilized to meet the needs of thirsty urbanites. Freshwater pumped upwards from underground aquifers can have structural impacts that may become clearly evident only years
the “Blue Water” liquid’s withdrawals commence. Perhaps even long after pumping program approvers and instructed instigators are no longer public office-holders and bureaucracy minions but are, instead, very comfortable pensioners living out-of-County! A thorough geological study report done by Dr. Susan E. Hough and her colleagues documents as fact that several Los Angeles County earthquakes (1920 Inglewood, 1929 Whittier, 1930 Santa Monica and the Long Beach tremor of 1933) were probably induced by early-Oil Era pumping techniques which, since AD 1935 have been replaced by simultaneous fluid injection techniques.
Depletion of subterranean freshwater aquafers reduces the bulk of the grainy rock which was the holding reservoir. Reduction of underground rock-mass volume, naturally, creates the likelihood of ground-surface deformation—over-taxed owners of real property affected by groundwater pumping probably will discovers their landscape to be riven by vertical and horizontal ground displacements.
Already, the Santa Clara Valley and Yucaipa Valley exhibit visible examples of ground failure indisputably attributable to freshwater mining. In Los Angeles County, many land-owners are quite familiar with ground-surface subsidence caused by oil and natural gas production, and the building and structure macro-problems resulting from that industrial activity—Wilmington in Long Beach and the Baldwin Hills Reservoir dam collapse on 14 November 1963 AD are still remembered by older Angelinos especially. If ever local sea-level rises markedly it does impose a hydraulic pressure upon freshwater- depleted coastal aquifers, forcing adjacent seawater (polluted or not) inland beneath very valuable near-seashore properties. Further inland, however, Los Angeles County residents must be wary of future actual topographic elevational descent! “Grey Water”, untreated to a potable standard for human and domesticated animal consumption, is widely used to irrigate public-property vegetations, including lawns.
Reasonably, whenever the BIG ONE [the expected 8.0+ magnitude earthquake of southern California’s 21
Century] occurs, it could have a generally unanticipated effect—tumbling homes, apartments, office and industrial buildings harshly because politicians had not clearly understood concerned individual property taxpayer owners about possible future landscape value decline—including actual reduction in height above sea-level. Los Angeles County’s politics is riven with publicly-expressed media and insider group derision of so-called landlords and suburban property owners. The public, however, is wiser
than professionalized lawyer-politicians, mainly because our focus in on the long-term environment with which we must cope on a daily basis! The Sci-Fi story elucidated next is edifyingly rife with political-speakers speaking nonsense and not solving a gigantic macro-problem entailing Homo sapiens’ survival!
Bounded ecosystem-nations, connected increasingly by a worldwide Internet in which packets of data are carried mostly by laser- light through fiber-optic cables, may be characterized as large and
Century “organisms”; cities, too, are natural geographical sub-systems of the Earth’s encapsulating bioshell. This concurrence of spatial and temporal Macro-Engineering macro-plans—initiated, of course, by mega-project-conceptualizing human Macro-Imagineers— allows world societies, and humanity, to effectively address the macro- problem of the Earth’s fuzzy “limit state”—that is, the condition at which a single, thinly vertical shell of various organic and inorganic molecules held by our planet’s gravity from escaping into outer space, hospitable to life, begins to become unfit for further use by mind- endowed Homo sapiens. Once such a “golden” state of affairs is achieved, our Earth’s limit state ought to be called a Geologic Time epoch, since it undoubtedly marks the onset of a new planetary time that is obviously markedly different from any that preceded it. Sometimes this dawning epoch is said to have already been passed— hence, the ceno-Anthropocene Sci-Fi concept.
It is fortunate that so much of humanity’s international telecommunications traffic is transmitted by electromagnetic pulse- immune fiber-optic cables, since the inauguration of Earthly anthropogenic outer space weather, which commenced with the first widespread geographical adoption of metal-wire conducted alternating electric current, and reached its peak contemporary influence circa AD 1962 with nuclear weapon test explosions in near-Earth outer space [revealing the possibility of a global electromagnetic pulse capable of interrupting over-land wire and satellite-based telecommunications] (Bombosi et al., 2016)!
Century geographical science is plagued by non-trivial terminological tribulations! Coeval with the Copernican cliché’s demise (Danielson, 2001), the ecosystem cliché is collapsing because Homo sapiens modify vast ecological systems, shifting major parts of ecosystems outside the realm of bioshell conditions that have existed since the Ice Age. This post-territoriality epoch, which the ceno- Anthropocene supervenes, supersedes the foundation it is based upon
to become planetary in both geographical scale and implication, is terra incognita. Present-day macroscopic robot exploration and future industrial exploitation of the other Solar System planets, moons and asteroids—still very much terra incognitos—warrant our serious consideration of some biogeochemical Earth futures proposed already by fatidic Sci-Fi writers. And, no, Chapter 2 is not about “grass farmers”, the marijuana growers and users who usually puff their way to personal intellectual befuddlement and proper police notice!
Many terrestrial photosynthetic plants are currently appropriated for use by our species and, in the course of industrialized mono-cultural farmed cropland, have caused green plant extinctions and the erasure of noticed and unnoticed ecological niches. Is it possible a postulated diminished future planet-encompassing biodiversity can weaken the role Homo sapiens plays in the Earth-bioshell? In the past, some scientists have likened the Cenozoic expansion of grasslands— gramineous landscapes—exclusively by Nature as a force and event-
process comparable to the ceno-Anthropocene (Retallack, 2001). Is our 21
Century species trending to a future Earth-world literally going to weedy grass seed? Philosophers have deduced that rocks may have “minds” and biologists have postulated that green plants may be capable of “thought” (Trewavas, 2014). Team Geographos assumes that radical Greens will, sooner or later, grasp these bizarre extensions of English-language vocabulary—because they are so difficult to narrowly
define—in some publicity effort to undermine normal Homo sapiens civilization!
Mars terraforming theoreticians—talented and sometimes genius humans who rightly ought to be titled “Planet Stylists” because of their ever more professional planning efforts and because they seek the impure art of the “Technological Fix”—might well rejoice at a future biotechnology’s laboratory development of a less hardy and ramifying Cynodon dactylon (Chen et al., 2015) featured in the Sci-Fi novel
Green Than You Think
. Already, scientists have supposed
development of Space Synthetic Biology to be used as manufacturers of needed components (Menezes et al., 2015; Landenmark et al., 2015) as well as the employment of such synthetic organisms to prevent declines in some over-stressed landscapes whilst reducing the air’s content of gaseous carbon dioxide gas (Sole et al., 2015). In other words “terraformation” of Earth as well as Mars, including specialized vegetating enclosures moving through interplanetary space!
. Cover-artwork illustrates the iconic City Hall of Los Angeles, California, USA (completed AD 1928) encircled by looping freeway access ramps, all overgrown by menacingly tall, very healthy grass! The installation of the extensive freeway network after World War II worsened Los Angeles’ fabled smoggy chemical weather (Lawrence et al., 2005). (Google Image.)
A rapid, smothering, geography-altering flood, like in the Biblical sense, is frighteningly rendered in print by Joseph Ward Moore (1903- 1978).
Photographic image of the writer Ward Moore, no-date. (Google Image.)
It is a well-crafted tale in which Earth’s landmass is overrun by an ineradicable mutated domestic lawn of Bermuda grass that starts its massive ungovernable growth and ultimate global spread from the City of Los Angeles’s Hollywood District, locale of some of our world’s major motion-picture corporations. Los Angeles, as of AD 2016, is our Earth- world’s most spatially extensive urban region—other than Juneau, Alaska—often descriptively and smugly portrayed as a notorious smog- smitten urban sprawl of the worst sort! [By AD 1947, when Moore’s Sci- Fi book was published, smog in Los Angeles appeared to have become a permanent aerial impediment health-wise since it first manifested during the Second World War.] In other words, J.W. Moore imagines humankind humiliated by a grassy Hollywood product, echoing perennial film-fan paeans and raving drug addict-like pleas for “More! More! More!” In the New World, all Americans make their last stand: “It was decided to complete digging the Nicaragua Canal and blow up part of Central America lying between it and the Isthmus of Panama” [A real-world canal excavated in Nicaragua may be in the offing (Huete- Perez et al., 2016; Carse and Lewis, 2017).] By AD 1987, a prognosticator from the Geosciences had, more or less, mirrored Moore’s scenario (Perry, 1987)!
Greater than 30% of our atmosphere’s current carbon dioxide gas content passes through green-plant stomata annually; in exchange, green-plant stomata exude water vapor equivalent to twice the amount naturally present in Earth’s air (Zwieniecki et al., 2016). The rate of green-plant photosynthesis on the landmass and in the world-ocean is high: a 1% biomass increase per year, absent balancing return flow (via animal respiration, fiery conflagration and repugnantly smelly rot), would result in all atmospheric carbon dioxide gas being converted to verdure in less than a decade! Quite naturally, Moore’s scenario of a global anthropogenic “Green Hell”, an anti-Creation, chlorophyllic Chernobyl wherein too much of only one plant species life is left unmentioned by lawn cultivation’s most ardent commercial advocates:
for example, during the early-21
Century, the giant perennial grass
Miscanthus x giganteus was researched as a possible feedstock for ethanol production. “Green” surely symbolizes Earthly life (healthy living vegetation’s chlorophyll, Greek for “leaf green”), sickness (queasiness), death (mold) and organic inexperience! Most persons seem to prefer the vistas of short grasslands—for instance, a well- trimmed lawn of air-polluting wounded grass (de Gouw et al., 1999)— possibly because our species’ savannah-inhabiting forebears knew from harsh experience that such wild landscapes were a far safer ecological niche than forests in terms of other animals’ predation of Homo sapiens. Flee to the “tall grass” is an indicator phrase, especially for the cowardly!
Most abnormally, excepting the voluminous and vast world-ocean during long-gone periods of planetary existence, a single dominating biotic environment exists upon Moore’s landmass during one indefinite period of Earth’s Geologic Time. Stratigraphy would be impossible if only one kind of life existed through millennia; there would be no means by which to identify strata (different rock types) in a rock-body since there would not be any stratum or rocky layer differentiable by fossilized content of bedding and named as a geological formation.
Microbial life forms have been found to survive and thrive many kilometers beneath Earth’s crust surface in high-pressure environments below the seafloor, islands and continents. “Utopia” is an ideal region of static topography; “Euchronia” is an ideal period of Geologic Time evidencing unnatural sameness of descriptive characteristics in every examinable rock section, resulting in mass of starkly unrelieved stratigraphic continuity. Earth’s plate tectonics makes it impossible for either to exist for more than a few hundred million years since subduction—the event-process by which tectonic plates descend into Earth’s mantle—erases everything eventually!
Some time ago, Biology proved that the total difference between the smallest and largest living Earth organisms is 10
(Gaines, 1993). If the reader assume a single hypothetical organism—for instance, J.E. Lovelock’s “Gaia”—larger than the State of California’s tallest giant sequoia tree, then this enormous would be more than 10% of the current known volume of Earth [that is, more than 10842 X 10
cubic kilometers], but less than our currently expanding Anthropocosmos delimited by Voyager I and II spacecraft exiting our Solar System. The Anthropocosmos is simply the anthropostrome’s current ceno- Anthropocene boundary extended upwards into outer space from the Earth’s Moho crust layer! Defined by Sun-escaping American-fabricated spacecraft, the Anthropocosmos’ interstellar border is the outer limit of our so-called Internet-connected “global village”. Since these unmanned spacecraft are moving outward from our Sun, the ball- shaped volume of outer space (and all objects therein), the Anthropocosmos increases at a more or less stable rate. During the early-21
Century, the Anthropocosmos’ radius is, at least, 70 Astronomical Units.
Each mature blade of grass, which grows untended from its base, in Joseph Ward Moore’s mind-stimulating Sci-Fi story, is approximately the height of a single small Sequoia semperevirens, so gigantic that a land-covering never mowable “lawn” composed of such blades stifles
and exterminates all fauna bigger than field-mice. Biologists theorize vegetarian dinosaurs were relentlessly pestered by the first small mammals.
Greener Than You Think
imaginatively kills off a proud, once world-dominating Homo sapiens using a common green plant treated with, and Frankensteined by, artificial growth stimulating chemicals, which causes the chemical-sprayed grass to flourish extra-ordinarily, growing to enormous physical proportions during the course of J.W. Moore’s matter-of-fact story—in effect, a true and likely unpopular “Tragedy of the Commons” event, absolutely not a popular
-style situational comedy television series episode. Moore never mentions in his novel which mutagenic or teratogenic chemicals he had in mind as his tale’s instigator, but suffice to say that would-be chemical weather manipulators have proposed using, on a Macro-Engineering geographical scale, DEHA [diethyl hydroxylamine, or (C
NOH] to inhibit photochemical smog’s formation in the stagnant air sheds of major urban regions such as the City of Los Angeles (Maugh, 1976); plastic artificial turf raises the risk of human cancers (Luzer, 2017). Not considering the possibility of chemical, biological and nuclear “dirty bomb” terrorism, there have so far been three major smog incidences:
(I) the December 1930 air pollution disaster in eastern Belgium’s Meuse River Valley; (II) the October 1948 event in the cities of Donora and Webster situated in the Monongahela River Valley of southwestern Pennsylvania, USA and (III) the world’s single worst air pollution even in December 1952 in London, England. Nevertheless, more disasters impend: dangerously hazardous high-levels of air pollutants are present during the hajj in Mecca, Saudi Arabia and, since AD 2015, the Chinese artist calling himself “Nut Brother” has made solid bricks from Beijing, China’s collected and compressed formerly aerialized smog particles! Although leaves emit isoprene [(C
)] thus causing visible smog, machine emissions of visible and invisible combustion gases, as well as gritty particles, are more dangerous to life, especially in cities and densely populated landscapes. The nebulous smog, intermittently present in the Los Angeles air shed since the first irritating smog siege
in July 1943, to this very day damages Hollywood’s show-cased celebrity lawns! More to Team Geographos’ point, was modern celebrity-architect Frank Gehry ignorant of the devastating potential of his ghastly plan for Dallas, Texas—“The Rainforest Enzyme” proposal— illustrated in October/November 1998 issue of
magazine? Moore and so-called “starchitect” Frank Gehry’s Earth-bioshell epoch development scenarios promote something quite unlike anything portrayed as the Kingdom of God in
The Holy Bible
“Chlorophyllic Chernobyl” is a code-phrase that raises and reminds people of the horrific specter of radioactive a complete global contamination of our planet’s air, its soils and water. By AD 1922, Robert Lionel Sherlock (1875-1948) suspected the Uniformitarianism geosciences doctrine had applied much too avidly and was, even in the early-20
Century, over-reaching its obvious geographical scope and historical comprehensibility. Instead, he shrewdly surmised, Catastrophism was likely to return to the forward-moving “edge” of
hypothetical and theoretical professional discussions in the Geosciences. Present-day avant-garde Macro-Engineering philosophers suspect that, even melded with James E. Lovelock’s Gaia Theory, Uniformitarianism and Catastrophism Earth change concepts are each, at their base, somewhat outdated, make-do, cliché concepts. In other words, it may not be true that organic and inorganic elements interact in an incomparable huge system—that is, the Universe!
Prominent Gaia theorists tweaked geoscientists when they asserted that anthropogenic artifacts, including machines, pollution, and artworks, were not separate from the feedback process-events of Earth Nature. The underlying idea of John Storrs Halls’ “Utility Fog” [his barely visible droplet-sized machines he has dubbed “foglets” that can harvest resources from air] is to stimulate the physical existence of a material object by micrometer-size robots—definitely smaller than a mustard seed. Molecular nanotechnology’s R&D is channeled toward the common goal of perfecting invisible machines that will have the
safeguarded capability to compose and decompose tiny and large objects for any human’s preferred purpose (Milburn, 2015). Interestingly, at the time
was showing in theatres, Arthur von Hippel (1898-2003) strongly hinted at the future realization of Molecular Nanotechnology (von Hippel, 1956)! Summarizing, such persons as Halls are satisfied that the Earth bioshell can be apprehended as an open system subject to science’s misconceptions and actual misuse (abuse)! Shocking! Yeah.
Well aware of the USA’s awful AD 1930s Dust Bowl ordeal, J.W. Moore speculated that our Earth’s vital hydrologic cycle (Linton, 2008) will eventually diminish in global effectivity. Realistically, evaporating at
1.14 meters per annum, the Blue Planet’s ocean could utterly disappear in about 2,670 years, leaving a few deep, hyper-brine lakes and exposing much of the desiccated, salt-encrusted exposed former seafloor to sunlight heating and geothermal vents—look at “before” and “after” satellite images of Central Asia’s Aral Sea for a preview glimpse (Badescu et al., 2011). Lacking any fluid runoff, continental erosion will be nil, especially as the dense ultra-Bermuda grasses absorb whatever rainfall does occur, and the terrigenous sediment will no longer be a big factor in altering the seafloor’s topography close to shores—in fact, because in Moore’s world there could be no base-level of erosion (i.e., sea-level today)—the central geographical sections of former ocean basins will change very little with Geologic Time’s passage. The increased accumulation of carbon dioxide gas by Moore’s “lawn” will also cause a further oxygenation of Earth’s atmosphere. If the oxygen-mixing ratio fell exceeded today’s 21% oxygen by volume, then spontaneous wildfires clearance of naturally accumulating dead vegetation would become unquenchable conflagrations, filling Earth’s air with smoke and large ash flakes, subsequently changing Earth’s albedo. Moore’s still-popular Sci-Fi novel, published between the treaty-enshrined end of World War II and the start of the Cold War, pioneered imaginative extensions of thought and described a true anti-
Gaia place—a place not to be wished for by any sane human being. Moore’s literary genre, in some important sense, has been reflected in modern-day non-fictional historical writings, such as
The Great Hedge of India
(2001) by Roy Moxham that elucidated the planting, maintenance, and recent near-disappearance of a living physical taxation barrier that separated millions of people.
In his Sci-Fi novel
No Blade of
Grass, during AD 1956, John Christopher suggested humanity’s extinction as an inevitable result of a previous, permanent global extinction of all species of grass. In reality, the total area of the macro-molecular matrix of Earth’s living green plants is about 641,000,000 square kilometers; Moore’s fictitious Bermuda Grass-like biotic mutation, his expansive and deadly “lawn grass” monster, would likely have a total leaf area that is at least equal to, and probably would exceed, that tentative mathematical extrapolation. A still-organizing American grassroots corps of propagandized and indoctrinated Greenism child-ecologists won’t truly understand the theorizing of Biogeochemistry proponents, so Sci-Fi’s writers should continue to have much leverage on still-forming young minds.
Joseph Ward Moore’s First Sci-Fi Novel
Answering a newspaper advertisement, Ward’s “Albert Weener” salesman is hired by an obscure scientist “Josephine Spencer Francis” who has formulated a plant-stimulating rapid growth potion that causes only grasses to flourish. Her aim is to make Earth’s agricultural Dust Bowls bloom, thus relieving the misery of our world’s hungry humans. “Albert Weener”, on his own account, decides to market this wonder of science first to property-proud suburban housewives wishing for greener lawns (Whitney, 2010). Unbeknownst to “Albert Weener” the sales-sample he is given by “Josephine Spencer Francis” is missing a crucial ingredient. The defective formula is applied to demonstrably dormant Bermuda grass. Revisiting the test lawn the next day, the lawn
is revitalized and rapidly growing into indomitable green foliage! Unstoppable green plant gigantification has been initiated by the faulty chemistry mixture put together by “Josephine Spencer Francis”. And, even the bombing of Los Angeles with nuclear explosives fails to halt its relentless spread! In other words, it is a biotic chain-reaction causing peril to every other living thing residing within Earth’s bioshell. That is the essence of J.W. Moore’s first Sci-Fi novel.
If J.W. Moore had been a practicing scientist, then some persons might have worried about Earth’s true-polar wandering potential under the influence of an unrestrainable globalized grass jungle. Freshwater reservoirs, deliberately impounded by anthropogenic dams on the landmass, by shifting our planet’s solid lithosphere with respect to its rotatory axis, have increased the length of days [slowed Earth’s rotation]. If it remains intact, and still attached gravitationally to the Sun as it is today, then when our planet reaches its perihelion on the vernal equinox during AD 6427, solar-induced atmospheric erosion— thermal [Jeans] escape and non-thermal plasma escape—will increase by a few percent. Thus, such an Anthropocosmos grass invasion process-event inevitably can change Earth’s total planetary mass as well as the elemental character of bioshell air. Plant research has conclusively demonstrated that, all other factors remaining the same as during AD 2016, elevated carbon dioxide gas content of the air, along with a large genome in Earth’s known annual species of grass, portend the future artificially amplified spread of this kind of rooted vascular plant over all ice-free landscapes (Jaslenski, 1995).
Perhaps the transgenic “super weed scenario” fostered by the promiscuity of transgenic plants, although not nearly as unpleasant as the outlandishly vengeful carnivorous vegetable in the comedy
Attack of the Killer Tomatoes
(1978) or the empathetically sensitive people- eating movie plants of
Little Shop of Horrors
(1960), is a biologically realistic environmental impact assessment of a possible biogeochemical human hazard. Weed-killing aerosols, currently a part of the Earth-
atmosphere’s daily televised chemical weather forecasts, could never be effectively used to release our human-inhabited bioshell from F.W. Moore’s chemically-exaggerated photosynthesizing-leaf monster; similar genetically-altered or genetically-engineered plants, resistant to herbicides, also develop far greater capability to pollinate other plants and to pass their unselected inheritable traits to succeeding generations via transgenic escape.
Molecular Nanotechnology seeks to completely dominate materiality itself in order to accomplish almost anything necessary to sate ever-evolving material human desires! Could otherwise unemployed persons or macroscopic Artificially Intelligent robots pluck all the bad weed seeds? Perhaps the infamous “grey goo” (Joy, 2000), created by a failed or successful Molecular Nanotechnology, can be foreseen to have riotous capability of plant- and earth-munching—like radioactivity-enhanced gigantic grasshoppers exhibited in Hollywood- made Sci-Fi movies (Tsutsui, 2007), devouring the Earth-crust’s topmost soils as Molecular Nanotechnology promoter Dr. Robert A. Freitas has imagined in his well-known “global ecophagy” scenario. But, is that not simply a third undesirable Earth bioshell limit state, another miserable anti-Gaia fulfilling fiasco? Nothing less than a planet-engulfing fumigation would be required to eliminate forever J.W. Moore’s pernicious “Green Hell”. The resultant all-desert planet—rather resembling today’s Nature-state of Mars—would have regional climate regimes unlike any ever experienced by humans, or even proto- humans!
So, what are some of the best and most practical technological options open to adoption by Macro-Engineering’s adherents that could cure F.W. Moor’s novel novel-posed macro-problem? Mindful that sea- grass such as Posidonia maintains vegetationally constant for 100,000 years (Sussman, 2014; Johannessen and Macdonald, 2016), prudent Terraformers might opt to bottle the remaining seawater and air, storing both someplace in outer space or on the Moon; this would
result in the full exposure of Moore’s shriveled Earth bioshell “lawn” to the drying hard vacuum of outer space; as an anthropogenic airless celestial body, Earth then becomes subjected to incessant space weather. However, some life forms can survive by hibernation in a hard vacuum for varying periods of Geologic Time; in fact, the carrying capacity of outer space is yet to be accurately assessed! Panspermia theory is still remarkably incomplete. In other words, even that valiant attempt to kill a deadly weed excrescence in its seed form might fail. The global activities of the tiny mechanical, soil-munchers could cause a global stratigraphic unconformity in our planet’s rock layering. Space- faring macro-engineers might prefer to construct a huge solar parasol to interrupt sunlight, especially in the wavelength of 400 to 700 nanometers, before it impinges Earth for a long enough time period so as to fatally terminate all green plant photosynthesis. Such work would entail a great circulatory change in the little remaining air not removed efficiently by industrious humans. Even so, herbicidal sprays may be required to kill grass-roots dug up and mashed by duplicating the Moon’s common Space Gardening Effect meteorite-induced constant geological process-event.
God gave humans the gift to Macro-Imagineer the most useful “Technological Fix” suited to various kinds of macro-problems as well as to turn a new leaf! Edward Forrest Moore (1925-2003), our world’s first proposer of robotized anthropogenic plant factory creations (Moore, 1956) about the same time as
was first released theatrically which featured the anthropomorphic mobile factory named Robby the Robot. Any successful deployment of his improved organisms could rival the fantasies contrived by Sci-Fi novelists who are both enthused and horrified by Molecular Nanotechnology’s epochal life-abatement prospects. [Other Sci-Fi stories featuring rapacious vegetation are John Wyndham’s
The Day of the Triffids
(1951) book and, more recently, William Meikle’s
The Creeping Kelp
Green Sci-Fi’s Backup is Nature
Whether in Sci-Fi, or in factual science, human artifice-simulating has the real Nature as its guarantor. At least that is a key Green assumption. But, is it true? Already it has been disputable shown that faux Nature has healing powers equal to everyday Nature (Lubick, 2013)! The Greenish apocalyptic epoch contingency is often urged upon students so that they can recognize such scenarios as conceivable, little envisioned as avoidable or, worse yet, profitably capitalized. For example, an enormous scientific macro-project shared by Switzerland and France, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), has been whispered as a possible source of an anthropogenic Black Hole that would accrete Earth, converting it to a mere pebble-sized gravitationally condensed piece of lifeless matter. However, a thorough examination of all the relevant factors appears to find “…no basis for concerns that TeV-scale [B]lack [H]oles from the LHC could pose a risk to [E]arth on time scales shorter than the Earth’s natural lifetime [of 4.5-5.0 billion years more” (Giddings and Mangano, 2008, page 1).
Pundits recklessly employ a rather trite quotation attributed directly to Isaac Newton (1642-1727): “If I have seen farther than others, it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants”—as the ultimate verbal expression of humility in persons of undeniable genius; actually it was a carefully crafted insult aimed at the short-statured an physically deformed Robert Hooke (1635-1703) during a bitter intellectual feud between two sometimes petty-minded men. That aside, it is a creditable proper historical fact, honor of priority, that Ossip Kurt Flechtheim (1909-1998) coined the term futurology and vividly foresaw at least two possibilities for Earth’s Homo sapiens- inhabited bioshell: (I) wise people “…can ameliorate the tragic consequences which may befall our world…” with devised Technological Fix remedies and (II) social scientists “…do not underestimate human stupidity or overestimate human nature…” (Flechtheim, 1945).
Homo sapiens, as an obviously ecologically viable Earthly unit, must prudently utilize geoscience scenarios of all kinds to maximize survival and individual happiness. O.S. Flechtheim’s “futurology”, whether wildly wielded by Sci-Fi writers or carefully applied by geoscience fact-finders and Macro-Engineers, can play a significant 21
Century role in that necessary community-wide civilization- advancement concerted effort. After all, any tiny sprouting seed of innovative thought can have tremendous potential for future bounty and beauty! In a sense, Sci-Fi is Technology Assessment for the inexpert
populace of our Earth-world! By the way, a future-predictor Team Geographos respects, Dr. Fergus Simpson, opines that the odds that humanity will not reach the next turn of the century [that is, 2101 AD] are 7:1 (Simpson, 2016).
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Journal of the Royal Society INTERFACE
Serendipitous Connect-the-Dots Earth Macro-Imagineering
Serendipity refers to finding valuable or agreeable things not sought for; where a line is drawn sequentially connecting numbered dots, the outline of an object is revealed in a drawing. Macro- Imagineering requires a bit of both kinds of staged and fortuitous discovery in order to proceed to Macro-Engineering, the actual final- form materialization of objects that are anthropogenically instigated. One fascinating example of a non-native present-day Californian geoscientist, Dr. James Marvin Herndon (Tarullo, 2003),
, who was first to connect enough perceived and proven factual dots to form a unique new image [perception of a global geological fact] of the nature of our Earth’s Nature-piled nuclear fissionable material core—he alleges it is an fluxing, operating, Nature-caused and maintained, fast breeder-type “nuclear georeactor” variably producing energy 3-5 Terawatts in our homeland’s center of planetary mass—that is, the whole period of this Solar System’s Astrologic Time during which Earth has been extant as a planet (Lemley, 2002; Herndon 2014; Lin et al., 2015).
Dr. J.M. Herndon (born 1944), pixyish President of Transdyne Corp., a successful scientific research and management company, presently located in San Diego, California, USA. (Google Image.)
Sci-Fi enthusiasts of our time may first have enjoyed a movie screen-visualized version of our Earth’s core in the Hollywood-made film
Independence Day: Resurgence
(2016) featured unspeakable naughty and hideous insectoid Aliens trying to harvest Earth’s hot solid core material for their own selfish purposes! [Roland Emmerich directed both scientifically outrageous, money-maker movies.] For Geoscience, our planet’s innermost core—kernel, nugget, thermochemical pile, radioactive material clump, fission nuclear georeactor, whatever—is considered “…the last frontier of global seismology” (Tkalcic, 2015, page 59). Uranium is a highly refractory
metal which boils at 3860
Celsius, yet it is likely, according to Dr. J.M.
Herndon, that the small fissionable material ball at Earth’s center of mass is the oldest compressed solid object to be found in our planet below its atmosphere; possibly the more or less spherical solid mass first formed only 100,000 years after Earth’s accretion event-process commenced. Scientists estimate—better than a guess, less sure than a repeatedly proved certainty—Earth gradually formed by its increasing all-direction gravitational pull on influenced asteroids, which then pummeled the molten aggregating celestial body for long periods of Astronomic Time. Because of differences in gravitational potential, gravitational time dilation in relativity insures that Earth’s center is always at least 2.5 years younger in age than Earth’s surface!
Plausible reconstruction of the thermal history of the whole Earth has long been a macro-problem in Geochemistry and Geophysics, still unsolved. The present-day measured heat flux is about 44 Terawatts, and most [99%] seems to derive from places enveloping the planet’s innermost core, from barely mapped geochemical reservoirs uniquely enriched in heat-generating critical masses of isotopes (O’Nions and Oxburgh, 1983; Allegre, 2002; Sramek et al., 2016); to this date, the
heat flow rates measured, which indicates our planet’s overall cooling, apparently originate from places below most of Earth’s crust, possibly downwards to 1,000 kilometers depth. However, there seems, and is alleged to be, another source of planetary heat lost to outer space—the inner core’s heat production emanating from a 5 kilometer-diameter central critical mass source—possibly the fission nuclear georeactor first postulated during AD 1994 by American geophysicist Dr. James Marvin Herndon (Herndon, 1994). Acceptance of Dr. Herndon’s proposition entails a different comprehension of Earth’s Geologic Time equal to that required by radioactivity’s discovery (by H. Becquerel in 1896) on whole planet cooling first theorized in 1862 by William Thomson (1824-1907) (Stacey, 2000).
Dr. J.M. Herndon suggested Earth’s innermost, globular fission nuclear georeactor formed during our planet’s earliest existence— actually
Geologic Time commenced, at a time when the Earth was crust-less, without terrains or terranes—by Nature’s collection in Sun orbit of the necessary nuclear fission elements almost solely under the action of increasing gravity. An early Earth-rind formed—scabrous Hadean rocks exampled today only by zircons, evidence of some previous form of Earth-crust—which later disappeared due to renewed, intense asteroid bombardment. There was a global-encompassing lava “ocean”, but no lasting stratification was possible! [“Magma” is material that is capable of moving within the Earth-crust and onto its surface (Glazner et al., 2016) becoming, when it is subaerial, molten flowing “lava”. Even after Earth’s crust formed as an encrustation 4.4 billion years ago on a pre-tectonic plate planet, it continued to be bombarded by asteroids and smaller space debris that resurfaced the planet through pounding and mixing of all near-surface rocks: these sometimes gigantic impacts—such as the enormous hypothetical global incomplete life-extinction event-process—the “Dinosaur Killer” Chicxulub astrobleme in Mexico is but one example—caused vertical materials fluxes in the crust and increased the crust’s porosity down to
the Moho, at least (Morgan et al., 2016). Continental crust seems to have first formed about three billion years ago (Dhuime et al., 2015), about the time heavy bombardment by space debris diminished markedly. The deepest rocks that may be hand-held are eclogite samples erupted from Earth’s mantle 400 kilometers below; by contrast, Mount Everest’s summit is composed of organism-made limestone.] The present-day Earth-crust consists of about 159 rocky tectonic plates, the largest of which is the mostly seawater-covered Pacific Plate, almost 20% of Earth’s surface area (Harrison, 2016).
Team Geographos postulates Earth’s Herndonean Georeactor may have formed under the influence of natural asteroid bombardment during early planet formation owing to the compression and shock- waves induced in the accumulating body by such violent event-process; this supposed additional event-process is calculated to be supplementary to the whole planet’s unified gravity effect. [Remember the finale of
This Island Earth
(1955)? Sci-Fi’s version of this violent pounding process: the human-friendly Alien’s fictitious homeland Metaluna becomes a new-born star after heavy enemy Alien blasting bombardment using Metaluna-pulverizing weaponized asteroids in numbers so innumerable that Metaluna’s enveloping artificial protective radiation haze failed catastrophically! Between 1994 and 2013 AD, 556 bolide impacts—one meter to 20 meters in diameter— with our Earth bioshell were
.] Team Geographos noticed that it is proved that displacement of solute saturated porous media results from the propagation of compression waves (Gross, 2003; Deng et al., 2013; Schlumpberger et al., 2015). Since the early Earth was most certainly bombarded by millions of tonnes of rock outer space debris, and since such impacts of solid material hit a molten lava-enshrouded Earth—that is, again, a planet not yet having a solid crust with its lava ocean misconstrued as a “Magma Ocean”—then it seemed to us that compression waves would move toward the planet’s center of mass and would cause heavy particles of fissionable material such as uranium
to be propelled there too, ultimately forming into a critical fission mass. Eventually, a Georeactor would start operating, producing heat. In other words, Team Geographos postulates that heavy asteroid bombardment is the driver and gravity-influenced settling is, at most, only supplementary or complementary to the planet-formation event- process!
Summation Team Geographos conclusion: natural fissionable particle sedimentation of a Dr. James Marvin Herndon-proposed Earth fission nuclear georeactor seems quite probable, considering only these two main factors: (I) large-scale asteroid bombardment causing aggregation of a planet Earth and (II) Earth’s inherent and increasing gravity caused by aggregation—both resulting in a natural ball- configured nuclear fission Dr. J.M. Herndon Georeactor’s ignition with the concurrence of all prerequisite materials and their proper geophysical states. We also assert that our homeland planet’s fission nuclear georeactor could have commenced its heat output prior to Earth’s Geologic Time starting! Whilst today, our Earth continuously receives about 3.7 billion Watts of power through the transfer of gravitational and rotational energy of the Earth-Moon-Sun System our Earth does not seem to be cooling as rapidly as classical geological theory (demands since it is known large amounts of heat are permanently lost to outer space at the Earth-surface): in other words, Earth’s J.M. Herndon nuclear fission Georeactor probably does exist in an operational state of order. Team Geographos, therefore, tentatively offers this perceived hypothetical asteroid agglomerative bombardment “dot” ought to be added to Dr. James Marvin Herndon’s ever-developing proven dot drawing of planetocentric Earthly nuclear fission reactor
Brazen Mother Nature Has Stored Spent Nuclear Fuel Openly!
Two billion years ago in Africa’s Franceville Basin located in southeast Gabon fourteen natural nuclear fission thermal reactors, with
water as the moderator, operated within naturally high-grade underground uranium ore deposits (Coogan and Cullen, 2009) unattended by humans or Aliens. This is the justifiably famed Oklo phenomenon. Life-forms mutated because of the presence of natural fission reactors (Adam, 2016). Some natural life-forms, such as the bacterium Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviator, found 2.8 kilometers underground in a southern Africa mine, harvests energy from radiolysis induced by particles emitted from uranium and other active minerals present in surrounding rock. The deepest boundary for Earth’s bioshell lies, probably, about 75 kilometers beneath our shod or unshod feet, where highly pressurized and geothermally heated water remains liquid. In other words, all of the Earth-crust down to the Moho phase- change layer in addition to some of the Earth-mantle—about 3.5% of the planet’s volume in total—contains water, either frozen, liquid or gaseous (Hermann et al., 2016). The thickness of the maximum known bioshell, approximately of thickness 5 kilometers, represents only 0.2% of the volume of our Earth. Besides impinging astronomical neutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos generated within our air, a few geoneutrinos are emitted by Earth. Counting their Earth-surface interactions helps geoscientists to estimate the quantities, and geographical distributions, of terrestrial heat-producing elements such as uranium and thorium. Geoneutrino observatories doing such dedicated measurements are dependent on the initial inventory of uranium and thorium contents aggregated during Earth’s formation as a planet, plus any redistribution geological and biological event-processes afterwards. Dead and alive organisms that are subducted into the topmost mantle along with rocky seafloor materials (Sleep et al., 2013), in part, governs how many geoneutrino interactions with the counters at watching observatories are finally enumerated by geoscientists for use in various, ever-evolving interminably tweaked Earth biogeochemical super-computer models. [And, life-forms dwelling long ago at Oklo must have been irradiated by radioactivity, and possibly mutated as a result.]
Anthropogenic Climate Regime Traumas Impend!
Optimists, by the late-1940s and early-1950s, expected fission nuclear energy to open a human civilization future of abundance where “…consumption, not production, will be the problem…” (Crany et al., 1948, page 46). Non-elite groups have new ideas about the Earth- bioshell and human cultural changes stimulated by real basic survival needs unlike top-tier elite groups who wish mostly to satisfy their almost whimsical group’s wants (McCloskey, 2016). Science is just one of many forms of human knowledge-seeking activity, and it once seemed to be a phenomenon typifying only European and North American ecosystem-nations [noosystems] (Cunningham and Williams, 1993). Arthur Herzog III (1927-2010), in his 1977 Sci-Fi book
planted the seed-thought that too much warmth can kill air-breathers!
[It is a fact that 21
Century human international migration has resulted
“…in a minor drop in the temperature experienced by the average person” (Tol, 2016, page 10).
What essentially separates Homo sapiens from all other extant Earthly species is that humans are the only species to manipulate energy—that is, benefiting from specific changes of energy from one form to another and, of course, causing pollution sometimes! Some of our clever devices, with which energy is harnessed and manipulated by humans, have been superseded by “sustainability” technologies. However, the inarguably ambiguous term “sustainability” is an invented sociological notion, judiciously employed to justify intra- and inter- cultural changes [tasks?] designed and assigned by top-tier national and international elites to those not in their clique. Such elitist persons find it very advantageous to foster publicly a so-called modernized noosystem view, wherein they have especial sway: such views of a concocted radical Green eco-social belief-system in many industrialized/non-industrialized noosystems favors their particular group’s economic flourishment to the detriment of those excluded
from that group, and whose associated potential comingling are perhaps unmissed!
Century modernity cannot be associated with any particular technology, surely it is undeniable that so-called Green sustainability-technologies are blaringly touted, nowadays presented as a pre-occupational watchword of the early-21
Century’s global elites, and global infotainment media: just about all broadcast and print media nowadays exacerbate humanity’s near-common attitude of future- dread (Kaplan, 2015; Rockstrom et al., 2016). Such a single social class-
centric scheme, in fact, fosters the status quo, but also gives influential political and financial power to those who desire to be humanity’s eternal unelected leaders—“leaders” who incessantly carp about how non-elite persons must “change” [conform to their dictates?]! These self-adulating persons suppose non-elites are best used as approving claques.
Divergent Minority Outlook: Uselessness of Mainstream Climate Fictitious Novel Regime Long-Term Predictions
What if there existed, possibly with a radical Green-stamp-of- approval first endorsement, an actual activated global-scale self- renewing/self-maintaining electricity production facility wirelessly transmitting its ever-increasing output to all humankind’s clever 21
Century energy-receiving smart electronic devices? [Such a singular planet warming installation would be additional to Dr. James Marvin Herndon’s boldly postulated, energetically fluctuating output, nuclear fission georeactor lodged exactly at the middle of Earth’s core.]
The air superincumbent on our Earth’s crust and its ocean has a unique importance for all life that is absolute. Generally, meteorology assumes that Earth heating cannot be greatly impacted—except by variable Sun energy output—incoming solar energy since that component is reemitted at the same rate as its arrival. Thus, air’s global warming is caused by a nearly constant geothermal heat flow fortified
by an already large, and measurably increasing, anthropogenic heat forcing factor (Njau, 2007; Chaisson, 2008; Nordell and Gervet, 2009; Muir, 2010; Garrett, 2011; Neelameggham and Davis, 2015). Geothermal energy flow during our homeland planet’s extended Geologic Time was, very probably, the condition that might have been the most important for life’s hypothesized development because life’s initiation and organization was the best release for planetary geothermal energy (Santosh et al., 2009). [All modern-day life-forms have limited flexibility in low-to-high air heat tolerance, suggesting a
vulnerability to rapid, abrupt 21
Century elevating average air-
temperatures forced by global climate regime changes trending to atmospheric heating (van Heerwaarden et al., 2016).]
Cosmo-chemists, since about 1997 AD, suspect that Earth’s naturally variable magnetic field affects our world’s total cloud coverage; it is known that the continual in-fall of billions of microgram- size space debris particles that completely ablate adds heating energy to air. And, it seems, seawater can absorb less aerial carbon dioxide gas if a weaker-then-usual Earth magnetic field is present. [The shape of Earth’s magnetosphere is determined to first order by a variable balance between static pressure generated by the geomagnetic field and the dynamic pressure of the Sun-produced solar wind.] In addition, it has been discovered that vertically aligned atmospheric aerosols seem to be caused by air’s electric field—vertical alignment or horizontal alignment of aerial mineral dust particles causes a “Venetian Blind Effect”—heating or cooling of the planet’s boundary layer air by its effect on incoming daytime solar energy. In other words, these new factually uncertain geophysical effects and theories complicate public discussions in the unconcluded debate about our Earth-bioshell’s future climate regimes and the sources of civilized Homo sapiens’ future energy supplies. Some newly-minted Geo-engineers have examined the effect of actual orbiting parasols, called Dyson Dots, as an economical means to “…
the solar constant [impinging and
heating Earth’s air] into a
” (Kennedy III et al., 2013, page 228).
As deliberately exhumed coal and mechanically-lifted petroleum are Earthly Nature’s solidified and liquefied stored solar energy elevated to Earth’s surface by human mining and pumping, such anthropogenic terrestrial energy release via devices of various kinds is like an Oklo phenomenon (Meshik, 2005) brought to our planet’s anthropic carved crust surface. Fossilized solar energy is stored in the electron orbit whilst nuclear energy derives from transformations within the atomic nucleus; nuclear energy is, approximately, two million times denser than solar energy. Thermal emissions from fossil fuel combustion as well as fission nuclear reactors have caused a pulse of air warming—approximately 1.71% of the radiative forcing caused by carbon dioxide gas added to the Earth-atmosphere by such burning— which is about 25% of Nature’s global mean geothermal flux of heat. Interestingly, more than 40% of global fossil fuel combustion and nuclear fission reactor operation occurs on only 1.27% of Earth’s surface. Big cities generating heat are like Nature’s volcanoes (Henley and Hughes, 2016)! Hence, the appreciable Heat Island Effect that is quite pronounced in some cities, especially those without consistently strong natural air-circulation patterns (Streever, 2013; Lockwood, 2016; Murray and Heggie, 2016)! [The accommodation of humans to urban Heat Islands using air heat counter-acting air-conditioners has been complicated lately by radical Green demands for near-term future use of markedly less polluting chemical Greenhouse Gases than those currently used in such common air-chilling machines (Sumner, 2016).]
Ever since the first take-offs of heat-powered lighter-than-air drifting balloons and the subsequent advent of aerospace vehicles, the national and world regional organization of air-pollution abatement as well as the international control of aerospace suggests that Earth’s atmosphere has been gradually enclosed (McCormack, 2008). If you release heat “into a room”, it gets warmer. Only when Homo sapiens
globally generates, on a truly industrially scale, several thousand terawatts, made available for work and comfort, will there really be a potentially significant heating of our Earth-bioshell’s air. Though at a vastly more voluminous spacial scale, this exertive event-process is educationally analogous to the technical difficulties encountered with perfect control of air quality in underground facilities (Dobraszczy et al., 2016; Kaliampakos et al., 2016) as well as those above-ground facilities that are designed to be, essentially, hermetically sealed, containing only conditioned breathable air (Graham, 2015). A novel-length Sci-Fi scenario, presented in the next section of this chapter, outlines one author’s scheme to drastically and relentlessly over-heat our homeland planet. It always sweltering outside, everywhere, even including the Polar Zones!
Uniquely, Dr. James Marvin Herndon has proposed Earth’s real pulsatory [“beating”] heart is a planet-sustaining variable energy- output nuclear fission georeactor. [If its “heartbeat”, its magnetic field ever stopped our atmosphere’s gaseous components would be sputtered away under the Sun’s constant energetic intensity, space weather!] Geoscience theory is born of bold hypothesis, which are often disparate facts previously unconnected by any obvious linkages— and educated leaps of faith. Some advancing geoscience theories are based only on supposition alone, yet those suppositions move other human minds forward to make a new theory sound. How might such a huge (by any human-size standard of measurement) but tiny (by Earth- size comparison) terrestrial energy production kernel formed? Well, Team Geographos bravely—maybe foolishly—offered its brief nuclear fission georeactor formational concept in the first section of Chapter Three. We conclude here by positing the idea that James E. Lovelock’s famous 1982 “Gaia Theory” bioshell operational description, currently utterly dependent on the Sun and possibly Dr. Herndon’s georeactor, will cease to exist in any meaningful way as a life-inhabiting vessel- Earth; truly, James .E. Lovelock’s swansong Earth-bioshell “Face of
Gaia” will become lifeless, finally without any vital animation whatsoever, literally beaming a blank death mask-like stare at the surrounding Universe lasting nearly for-ever!
World’s Biggest God-damned Billboard
, the 1974 Sci-Fi novel penned by Don Widener (1936- 1996), centrally featured a huge, humanized-but-malevolent robotic breeder and nuclear reactor-driven electric power plant named N.U.K.E.E.—symbolizing a “Nuclear Universal Keystone of Enormous Energy”. It is, conceptually, a technical follow-up—not a spin-off—of the USA’s pioneering real-world Experimental Breeder Reactor-1 [EBR- 1] technology. The first breeder reactor concept was developed by Leo Szilard (1898-1964) in 1943 AD in response to an apprehension of a possible worldwide uranium shortage. A breeder reactor creates more plutonium (Pu) than it uses. Plutonium, with a half-life of 240,000 years, has been dubbed our world’s most dangerous element (Bernstein, 2007). Super-N.U.K.E.E. is ultra-Green: it cannot generate and expel carbon dioxide gas nor could it emit much water-vapor. Operational regulation of the fictional N.U.K.E.E. is totally controlled by, and secured from all possible human interference of, two Artificially Intelligent computers. [It is well worth knowing that modern-day supercomputers—pick your preferential brand—have very high power densities, meaning that if not constantly cooled by circulating chilled fluid, or by some other refrigeration technique, coupled with dissipating fans, these might melt through the concrete and steel rebar floors upon which they rest—a distinctly undesirable 1970s eponymous Sci-Fi movie-inspired China Syndrome process-event!] The autonomous Super-N.U.K.E.E. must be operated by a perfected software system that rapidly self-assembles into the most efficient form along with various programs that enable it to cope successfully with many tasks simultaneously. In other words, it could automatically deal with our world’s Internet of Things organization!
The Hollywood-made Sci-Fi movie
(2013) introduced the world-public to a quintessentially 21
Century villain: rampant useless space debris (Hanson, 2014; Gorman, 2015). [Our industrial waste orbiting in outer space around Earth effectively filters incoming solar energy reaching our atmosphere, reducing our Sun’s brightness as measured with surface-sited instruments by 2.72 X 10
percent (Damjanov, 2017). Still barn-burning climate change alarmists allege the NASA will soon lose USD$23 billion in structures at Kennedy Space Center in the State of Florida, U.S.A. (Rosenzweig et al., 2014).] The Super-N.U.K.E.E. installation was built, according to Don Widener’s fascinating Sci-Fi story, as a compleat replacement before all of our world’s faulty-design nuclear fission reactors are finally shut-down for safety reasons. [Team Geographos supposes, though the concept was not made popular until circa AD 1983, that a semi-permanent “Nuclear Winter”, where dust veils in the stars and Sun, thrown skywards by nuclear explosives, creates a lower global albedo predicament. The dust is contaminated by life-killing ambient radioactive aerosols, and was
imaged as the basic cause of the world-public’s fear of generalized nuclear warfare.] Once the breeder reactor is commissioned, the N.U.K.E.E.’s menacing operation cannot be terminated by any living being. Naturally, plaguing macro-problems, and many macro-surprises, arise as Widener relates his somewhat bizarre holocaustic tale.
There is an announced Doomsday Device—as in the 1963 Hollywood film
Dr. Strangelove or…How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb
—buried beneath N.U.K.E.E. Even worse for humans, it is belatedly realized by its electronically-monitored, menial, human being janitor-servants that the two regulating AI computers are unalterably programmed to demand that humanity use—in any way they can—exactly five percent more electricity than N.U.K.E.E.’s ever- increasing yearly generation supply capacity. Why 5% output? Because electricity moves very fast, at the speed of light in fact, it must be consumed as it is generated (Bakke, 2016); because it cannot be
otherwise, our electrical grid systems are, possibly, humanity’s very first “just-in-time” super-regional production and consumption infrastructure! If electricity flow is reduced by more than 5%, brownouts or blackouts may occur. If it surges by 5% or more, it can damage sensitive receiving and directing electrical equipment. Should humanity not obey its first and overriding commandment, Super- N.U.K.E.E.’s nasty ace-in-the-hole is its impregnable Doomsday Device, its “dirty bomb” detonation threat (Geist, 2016).
Frantic humankind, collectively a Green-enforced planetary prisoner, is worn to a frazzle by the continuous effort to find ever more wasteful ways to use the continually increasing surplus of electricity available. In other words, demand/consumption is never stagnant, or all Earth-bioshell life-forms could end via a poisonous, atmosphere- permeating plutonium fumigation event-process. There is also the threat of major future life-form and life-style adjustments to be caused by impending “Nuclear Summer”, because nuclear energy use after its generation emits heat that can adversely affect air quality. Think urban heat island bubble as sphered globally! One of the near-final human- directed macro-projects instituted to consume excess electricity is a gigantic, horizontally laid out, neon sign (Ribbat and Anthony, 2013) with gargantuan English-language lettering, constructed in the vastness of the unpopulated Sahara (Gearo, 2011) that serves only to notify any passing Aliens that our heat-enslaved planet, wrecked by tornadoes (Huang et al., 2016) and dust-storms, is named “Earth”. At the present- time, about 80% of Earth’s landscape is without roads (Ibisch et al., 2016) so such glowing-signage really will stand-out from its background! The berserk and schizophrenic AI computer-breeder reactor creature-thing is eventually, and unceremoniously, switched-off in a surprise finale of Don Widener’s black-humor semi-techno thriller novel.
In a vivid report first read to the 2
Tokyo Institute of Technology Center of Excellence Program on Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems for
Sustainable Development of the World (COE-INES2) during its “Symposium on Innovative Nuclear Systems, Yokohama, Japan, 26-30 November 2006”, nuclear fission energy R&D experts offered a new, but still not prototyped, means of nuclear fission reactor for generally affordable electricity generation that
does not require human operators be present
! “It provides zero biospheric hazard in event of either natural or man-made catastrophe. It requires—indeed, admits of—no operator control actions, other than initial start-up and final shutdown commands, so that operator errors are entirely precluded; during the half-century of potentially full-power operational life in between these two commands, it thermostatically regulates in an entirely automatic manner its own nuclear power generation to match the heat removed from its core in a time-varying fashion” (Hyde et al., 2008, page 82).
Here, Team Geographos macro-imagines a human-controlled extant Super-N.U.K.E.E., available to future humans inhabiting a rogue Earth—that is, our homeland propelled or flung away from the Sun so that it is no longer within the Sun’s sphere of gravitational influence— unbound from the Solar System at it is today, enduring the absence of sunlight whilst moving through interstellar space. In order the keep Earth’s air gaseous, unfrozen, it will have to be heated as much as the Sun heats air nowadays. Electricity transmitted from the monumental power plant might be used to good effect, in part, to generate electricity to heat-redden the uninsulated conductive metal, or carbon nanotube, wire tower-strung from Polar Zone to Polar Zone on a single robust longitudinal line traversing the New or Old World. In essence, In essence Team Geographos theoretically extends a real-world gedanken-experiment, devised first by chemically-minded planetary Geo-engineers, neophyte terraformers in fact, wishing to extract all anthropogenic carbon dioxide gas from Earth’s air to cool all climate regimes (Elliot et al., 2001). [By June 2010 AD, a common definition of “Geoengineering” had been added to the
Oxford English Dictionary
Instead or their open trough—visualize a contiguous linear Arctic-to- Antarctica CO
gas sequestration pond—filled with gaseous CO2- absorptive chemicals subjected constantly to Nature’s 21
Century established and developing worldwide, pervading fluid wave-forming
weathers, Team Geographos substitutes an undetermined number of electricity-conductive heating wires [spiraled or helical?], sometimes encased by insulation and sometimes not, deliberately strung to intentionally warm the Earth-atmosphere’s boundary-layer air from pole to pole. Years ago, the Global Energy Network International organization successfully computer-modeled all of the requisite, extremely long-distance, Earth-bioshell electrical network connections (Dekker et al., 2001). Such an installation, a new kind of long-distance power-line, will create a linear heat source that will generate a thermal plume in the air. The free convection heat transfer from the planet’s wires will have two evident regions: (I) the inner region, which is essentially the radius of the wires and (II) the outer region where the flow and temperature fields are, due to a wire source of heat. Don Widener wisely provided readers with no indication for the maximum
energy output of Super-N.U.K.E.E. According to Q = mc delta T, Q = (5.148 X 10
kilograms) (1,000 Joules/kilogram
Celsius), it is supposed that increasing Earth’s troposphere, including its boundary- layer, temperature from about 15
Celsius to approximately 22
Celsius would require an energy input of 36.036 X 10
Joules, at least, to “warm the room” so to speak. A comparison: the total energy released by the Earth annually through volcanism, earthquakes, and known geothermal heat flow, is about 1.3 X 10
Joules. In other words, to maintain air temperature of a rogue Earth, a holistic spaceship as it were, would require supplemental energy inputs amounting to 27 times that released yearly by Nature (as embodied in the whole planet Earth)! Humans dwelling within a rogue Earth must have the Super-
N.U.K.E.E. online perpetually since 3.7% supplied by our planet alone just won’t be sufficient for people to survive long-duration space flights aboard a fully prepared Spaceship Earth interstellar vehicle.
Before the Industrial Revolution, our species’ capacity to modify the Earth-bioshell was restricted to the availability of muscle power, both human and harness animal, according to Andrew S. Goudie and Heather A. Viles’ comprehensive
Geomorphology of the Anthropocene
(2016). Electrical power consumption provides an excellent estimate of the technological development of densely populated regions. Nighttime artificial light pollution (Falchi et al., 2016), as well as its temporary absence during sporadic power supply failures caused by large-scale outages, are the most obvious visible-from-outer-space indications of humanity’s networked electricity use: the prevalence of humankind’s electrical infrastructure is so visually prominent that at times our powered devices might seem like a geological formation constructed atop the Earth-crust (Schewe, 2006; Cathcart 2011). “Issues surrounding electricity transmission will be as important for [Green] non-fossil-fuel energy as tankers and pipelines are for oil and natural gas” (Paltsev, 2016, page 392).
The electrical power consumed by widely-dispersed information technology equipment—the World Wide Web, is one pervasively outstanding infrastructure example—probably amounted during AD 2016 to 1-5% of our globalized civilization’s per annum electricity use (Horner et al., 2016; Millard, 2016). In order to operate efficiently, the World Wide Web equipment must, of necessity, be constantly chilled to forestall all breakdowns from over-heating. Simultaneously, the World Wide Web’s users, 7.2+ billion humans, shed their metabolic heat continually, day and night. Super-N.U.K.E.E. itself would, undoubtedly, become a new mega-object visible to human spationauts as well as any closely passing observant Aliens! Herbert George Wells (1866-1946), in his 1938 book
, at page xiv, therein, he states:
a World Brain could “…supply my hope of an adequate directive control of the present destructive drift of world affairs.” Today’s World Wide Web, the future’s Internet of Things, does offer some of the desirable
qualities that Wells desired. However, Super-N.U.K.E.E. is not in the same Artificial Intelligence league as Well’s imagined World Brain since it does not exert its influential power directly everywhere in the world, but merely blackmails globalized humanity with an unstoppable real- world sentient electrical powerhouse that, if disobeyed, has the capability to destroy our homeland planet by gradual over-heating the enveloping air [cooking organisms of all kinds] or the atmosphere’s global contamination by a single dirty nuclear weapon explosion [poisoning organisms of all kinds]! Krell Machine-like! Perhaps the very first counter-action humans might take is to speedily institute vast public health interventions, at a regional scale first, then global geographical scale as needed, to increase Homo sapiens use of air- conditioning, even though such machines eject heat into our world’s air to reduce the number of heat stroke victims (Wang et al., 2016)!
The Super-N.U.K.E.E.-powered neon “Earth” sign would garishly illuminate a large longitudinal geographical region of the climatically hostile northern Sahara, making that region’s dry air even warmer. [Even if nuclear fusion reactors should become available—a seemingly forlorn hope and shopworn technological forecast—such power plants could only be operated in a thermally compliant mode, possibly expensively counteracted by appropriate atmospheric planetary Geo- Engineering efforts. No so-called “Earth Hour”, a practice started in Australia during AD 2007 that involves all non-essential outdoor lights being intentionally dimmed from 8:30-9:30 P.M. every year during the early evening on 28 March in a time zone-by-time zone global sequence, can offset the continuous Super-N.U.K.E.E. heat output. Indeed, “Earth Hour” would likely be banned by international law! Perhaps even all low-risk aerospace flights ought to be terminated (Ocampo and Klaus, 2016).
Neon gas is generally known for being the most unreactive element and is a key component in semi-conductor manufacture. Neon is well-known to the world-public, especially those dwelling in cities,
from the 1920s to the present: “These seamless, illuminated electronic surfaces are becoming the devices through which we frame our [ceno- Anthropocene] experiences” (Arnold, 2015, page 140). Its cost has escalated over the years, increasing the need during modern times for significantly better means to separate and isolate the gas for its industrial use (Wood et al., 2016).
The first successful outdoor advertising neon signs were fabricated circa AD 1902-1910 in France by Georges Claude (1870- 1960). High-brightness lamps are filled with pure neon gas. When a starting voltage of 55 to 110 volts alternating-current (or 90 to 140 volts of direct-current) is applied, the neon gas ionizes and glows. However, once the gas has been ionized, a lower voltage—usually 10- 20 volts below the initiating voltage—will maintain the lamp’s glow. Neon lamps are sturdy, not easily affected by vibration (such as the Sahara’s infrequent earthquakes) and mechanical shock (such as powerful North African wind gusts), and often function flawlessly over a
wide ambient temperature range (from -40
Celsius to +150
Presumably, the Saharan neon lighting installation will be as durable as Chernobyl’s New Safe Confinement, a 36,000 tonne steel and concrete arch-shaped radiation shield slid finally into place over Unit 4 on 29 November 2016 after an expenditure of 2016 USD$1.6 billion.
The outdoor durability of a straight tubular neon lamp, currently approximately 20 years, does increase as soon as the operating current is lowered from its starting ionization voltage. The typical light output for clear glass lamps filled with neon gas is in the orange/red range of 600 to 700 nanometers. In other words, the Sahara lit by Don Widener’s steady neon sign becomes an illuminated look-alike ruddy Mars landscape!
Super-N.U.K.E.E. Heat Rejection at Synoptic Climate Scale
With current Green-fomented alarms about anthropogenic global warming of Earth’s air, certainly, Don Widener’s neon sign might be, at
least, considered as a “Sign of the Time”. Some Green climatologists assert that a mere 2
Celsius future warming will change, amongst other regions, the Mediterranean Sea Basin ecosystems, producing ecosystems unseen in that region for 10,000 years (Sugden, 2016)! As of AD 2016, there was no accurate computer global climate model available to fully integrate the future long-term anthropogenic heat air temperature forcing factor; despite massive infusions of government funding—your tax monies not necessary at work—the alarmist climate study community, a media-mediated radical Green kakistocracy if ever
there was one, has utterly failed at its self-assigned motivational research task [acquire unequaled power over other persons] since most of the world-public remains unconvinced as well as quite uninterested in their airy blathering!
Nevertheless, in AD 1970, Tor Bergeron (1891-1977) proposed a macro-project of intentional seawater heating in order to cause anthropogenic humidification of air joining the seasonal monsoon tropospheric air masses moving over the Tropic Zone savannah and hot desert of North Africa (van Ittersum et al., 2016). Bergeron then had no intention of recreating Lake Mega-Chad, which was Earth’s largest freshwater ponding around 6,000 years ago, 360,000 square kilometers
(Armitagea et al. 2015). But, as a consequence of natural climate regime change since, Lake Chad is today but 1,000
its former prehistoric area. After examining a number of different Geo- engineering options by which water vapor could be generated on a timetable, Bergeron chose a vertical submarine-buoyant factory utilizing thermonuclear energy to generate aquatic heated plumes in a
part of the North Atlantic Ocean. His warmed seawater plumes were to be heated by regular fission/fusion nuclear explosives or perhaps from submerged but controlled constant nuclear fission reactors. These, he alleged, “…could be used for heating, or even boiling [that is, warming seawater to more than 100.56
Celsius] the surface water at the coast
of the Bay of Guinea, where the SW monsoon enters Africa” (Bergeron, 1968, page 1).
Geographical location of hydrologically vital Gulf of Guinea. The light-colored landscape at the top of this image represents the dry Sahara. The modern-day remains of once magnificent Lake Mega-Chad is located at the upper right-hand corner of this labeled satellite image. (Google Images.)
Western Africa’s southwest monsoon arises from the differential heating of land and ocean; its direction and strength are governed by pressure and temperature differences between the ocean and land. Northern Africa’s landscape can change naturally due to changes in atmospheric water vapor with the seasonal reversal of the monsoon climate regime (Pielke et al., 2016; Nash et al., 2016; Boos and Korty, 2016). Bergeron’s desire was to use steam created in one place to increase rainfall onto northern Africa’s aridic landscapes, especially the Sahara. Such a macro-project, if materialized, would be one of the few humankind has devised to specifically increase our air’s water-vapor content (Santer et al., 2007) and, as an important undesirable side- effect, to increase global warming anthropogenically! At the present time, water-vapor in our air accounts for just 0.04% of all measureable freshwater within the Earth’s bioshell, or about 12,900 cubic kilometers of pure water (Chang, 2012; Malt, 1994). Since Bergeron’s mega-scale
concept has never been modeled, either physically in a laboratory setting or computationally, it is currently impossible to clearly establish the trade-offs that are bound to accompany any Brobdingnagian ocean region seawater heating mega-project (Cook and Vizy, 2006; Williams et al., 2016). For human-built computers, the petaflop operation was achieved by AD 2008, current computers are capable of almost 100 petaflops and, perhaps before AD 2025, the world’s best, fastest computers will be operating at exaflop speeds [1,000 petaflops]!
Uranium was discovered and named 24 September 1789 (Kupsch and Strnad, 1989); as of AD 2016, our world’s known reserves of uranium were more than 5.5 million tonnes, sufficient for, say, a fifty- year use period at existing rates of consumption. Probably twice that much uranium remains undiscovered and there is 4.5 billion tonnes of uranium floating in Earth’s seawater (Gill et al., 2016)! As mention before, the function of a breeder reactor is to produce more fuel than it uses. In the U.S.A., the Experimental Breeder Reactor-1 (EBR-1—now a National Historic Landmark) is located at Idaho National Laboratory. EBR-1’s construction commenced during 1949, and on 20 December 1951, it first generated useable amounts of non-commercial electricity. By early-1953, EBR-1 was creating one new atom of nuclear fuel for each atom it burned—break-even as it is called. In other words, more nuclear fuel could, therefore, be continuously created in a breeder reactor than was burnt during its operation!
What might be the technical specifications of the infernal machine Super-N.U.K.E.E. built and operating just to heat the membrane- encapsulated atmosphere of a rogue Earth no longer intercepting any of our Sun’s radiated energy? Well, the November 2008 issue of
, a publication of American origin and predominant circulation, contained (at page 14, therein) a guestimate, developed by the Natural Resources Defense Council (founded 1970), of the total monetary costs to humans of future Earth-bioshell climate regime changes, circa AD 2100: USD$1.873 trillion would be “lost” owing to
global sea-level rise, intensive future droughts in agricultural regions as well as devastating future super-hurricanes. Planet-scale ideas of Macro-Imagineering—especially Geo-engineering/Macro-Engineering— are now stalled by international geopolitical inaction. Macro- Imagineers are visionaries steeped in the ethos of more prosaic “concept of the world” that is conveyed by the difficult German word “weltanschauung”.
A Super-N.U.K.E.E.-caused alteration of our homeland’s climate regimes would combine two previously separate concepts of normal and abnormal Earth climate: (I) statistical baselines and (II) cultural expectations. This would be unique until humans terraform Mars and, possibly, Venus. But, just as (in simplest economic theory) 100% of the people can choose only what meets their approval in the market but as many as 49% could be unhappy with the result of an election, Team Geographos invites the reader to contemplate the results of a compromise politics applied to deciding which local community gets a given kind of weather and when political rainmakers might be, literally, a paycheck profession! This chapter is a parable. Since 1951 until early- 2017 AD, humans have constructed 754 nuclear power-plant reactors in 41 ecosystem-states, of which 90 have been retired, decommissioned or abandoned like Chernobyl’s Reactor #4 wreckage. As the present-day popular ceno-Anthropocene is commonly portrayed by all kinds of eco- social activists, humans are presented with two rather unappetizing geophysical planet-people unitary outcomes: (I) a “successful” ceno- Anthropocene results in humanity possibly in future enslaved by Artificially Intelligent machines OR (II) humans become extinct owing to our all too “successful” depredation of Earth’s sacred bioshell. Of course, neither is desirable. Super-N.U.K.E.E. really shares both of these extra-ordinary Sci-Fi projections!
One possible macro-project counter-balance for the onerous Super-N.U.K.E.E.’s fictional depredations might be the installation of a Cathcart Thermal Energy Rejection Barge, a heat rejection barge of
enormous area, a super-sized Ultra-large Scale Floating Structure (USFS) in fact, floating atop most of the Persian Gulf’s bathymetrically deepest salty water surface. [This macro-project plan was first cursorily introduced and outlined in R.B. Cathcart’s
World Macro-Imagineering: Masterpiece Mega Projects
(2016, Chapter 7 pages 158-163). It has some of the geophysical characteristics, in terms of emplaced material and regional climatic effects, of China’s Great Wall, which massed 10
kilograms at least.] It was proposed last year that this particular USFS have its deck coated by photon crystal thermal black body solar
absorbers that cool structures and their surroundings via sending thermal radiation to Earth’s universal enclosure, outer space (Raman et al., 2014; Zhu et al., 2015; Chen et al., 2016; Parise, 2001).
. Possibly, USFS will be installed before AD 2039, since it is the 1200
anniversary of the Mahdi’s occultation in the Twelver Shia tradition. [Persian Gulf human-compatible textile fashions are another likely mitigation for a hotter climate regime—protective clothing assisting with the maintenance of body heat balance without impeding body movement (Hsu et al., 2016; Boriskina, 2016).] Constructed of
“unsinkable” foamed metal, the CTERB offers the potential for desalination of irrigation water (Moustafa, 2016) and a floating landscape for food and fiber agriculture (Anon., 1996). Further, islands are known to stimulate more sea-life, near-island biological “hotspots”!
Cathcart Thermal Energy Rejection Barge (CTERB), the USFS is shown here floating on the Persian Gulf where daytime temperatures are expected to increase soon as the region’s climate regimes change during the 21
Century. Try to imagine the newly induced air-mass circulations generated by gigantic heat emissions from Widener’s Super-N.U.K.E.E. neon sign
the heat rejection to outer space by
Team Geographos’ Macro-Imagineered huge Persian Gulf CTERB! Certainly it could be an interesting exoflop computer model exercise. (Image: Courtesy of J.M.H.)
A habitable planet traveling in interstellar space, a rogue Earth for instance that is much more voluminous than Daniel R. Glover’s Space Station independent of resupply from Earth (Glover, 2013), can be envisioned by Macro-Imagineers (Abbot and Switzer, 2011). Such nomadic planets, unbound to any Milky Way Galaxy star—in this specific case, our Sun—might transport life, along with sustaining life. After all, most life in Earth’s bioshell is bacterial and highly adaptive. Some examined known life-forms (microbes and nematodes) survive exclusively on heat generated inside the Earth. Human utilization of only geothermal energy to power civilization is conceivable. However, such heat extraction eventually may shutdown the geomagnetic field that shields Earth from cosmic and solar energies.
Nevertheless, assuming the planet’s latent heat as 7.0 X 10
Joules, the technically useable geothermal power of 3.9 X 10
Joules, then human civilization’s total annual requirements of about 7.02 X 10
Joules for a nomadic, or rogue, Spaceship Earth could be provided reliably to our current un-encapsulated civilization. That might allow our civilization to travel the Milky Way Galaxy for uncountable, almost meaningless, “years”, possibly a trillion years, if the energy required to keep life civilized normal is supplied by geothermal power-plants with 55% overall efficiency. Geothermal energy could also be mined at the expanding ridges forming the, say, mid-Atlantic Ocean tectonic plate border, using U.S. Patent 9,109,582 B2, “Deep Sea Thermal Energy
Mining”, issued on 18 August 2015 to Alberto Sarria. The Earth’s heat flow from below the seafloor would likely increase because the Earth’s seawater and air will be rapidly chilling if our planet were made to become a rogue telluric planet! Earth’s seawater might become useful in directed rocket engines as a propellant vaporized by heat emitted by our planet’s internal nuclear fission reactor—Dr. James Marvin Herndon’s idea of Earth’s natural “Georeactor”! Sadly, some recently published scientific research—every bit as Sci-Fi as Herndon’s 1993 speculation—alleges: “Even if the hypothesis of a geo-reactor operation in the proto-Earth period would have been plausible, it is likely a geo- reactor is not operating today” (Degueldre and Fiorina, 2016). As further investigation are conducted and reported, we’ll see!
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Socio-Ecological Attraction: “Disco Mirror Ball” in Our Sky?
Century world’s humans—at least those fortunate enough to enjoy a mostly cloud-free or entirely cloudless nighttime sky overhead—saw an extra-bright full Moon during for the first time since January 1948 AD on 16 October, 14 November and 14 December 2016 AD. Always Earth’s natural satellite appears full from the Earth’s surface when our homeland planet is situated between our Sun and the Moon; the Moon orbit moves through an elliptical shape, sometimes closer to Earth at its perigee than at apogee. During three successive months last year the Moon appeared 14% larger in diameter because it was 48,000 kilometers closer than at any other moment during its regular, stable orbit of Earth. The natural full Moon is of apparent magnitude 12.6, far fainter than the human eye-blinding 26.73 apparent magnitude of our Sun! Although it did not reflect sunshine more than its usual 7-11% then, such a really extra-bright full Moon, approximately 31% brighter, won’t be seen again by Earthlings until 25 November 2034 AD. During
Century, the Moon’s closest perigee (about 356,421 kilometers
will happen on 6 December 2052; during the 22
Century, its most distant apogee will be 406,720 kilometers, occurring on 3 February
The NASA’s DSCOVR satellite image of the Moon’s far-side— 41% of the total lunar area as seen by an Earth-situated observer— centered over the full Earth in the background, taken 16 July 2015. Both celestial bodies were receiving the same amount of sunlight at that moment, but notice particularly the reflective visual difference! (Google Image.)
Human familiarity with the Moon’s phases had considerable practical consequences—humans acquired the ability to organize time—for pre-Industrial Revolution ecosystem-societies (say, pre-1750 AD) that were utterly dependent on the dimly reflective luminary Moon for
nighttime outdoor illumination other than safely hand-held fire- torches (Williams, 2016). Between 1750 and 1900 AD, our civilization advanced technically, enough to bring artificial daylight generated indoors to Earth’s outside natural night. [Light is herein taken as visually effective radiant energy for Homo sapiens reliant individuals (Bluhm and Lippincott, 2000).] Other Earth organisms have changed under the intensities, timings and spectral composition of light emitted from our Sun and other stars, and reflected from the Moon. So, artificial outdoor lighting for purposes of public safety instigated by humans is a novel outdoor Earthly biological stressor, as well as for humans working and residing inside buildings (Stevens and Zhu, 2015)! These innovated means of producing instantly on-demand artificial light quickly shifted the everyday concept of night from its customary associations with seclusion, rest, and fear to a pervasive and common new human
tradition of night that gradually acquired its 21
Century function as a
time period for additional outdoor work, play, public entertainment, and education. Urban light pollution is strongly amplified by clouds, atmospheric molecules or aerosols such as dusts or smog, as star- obscuring sky-glow (Zhou et al., 2015). [Those astronomers leading the globalized concerted search for extra-terrestrial Alien settlements are now considering the possibility that advanced, new optical telescopes, used by humans, may detect far-distant Alien civilizations by detection
of light-emissions from their vast, definitely “foreign”, space and planetary infrastructures (Loeb and Turner, 2012)!] Occurring concurrently, Earth’s increasing radio-television brightness in the Milky Way Galaxy has got professional astronomers thinking realistically about placing advanced radio astronomy tools on the Moon’s far-side in future. Indoor and outdoor lighting plays an increasingly significant and often detrimental role, in the public’s acceptance of some 21
Despite its low bond (0.11) and visual geometric (0.12) albedo— the fraction of solar radiation that is reflected back to outer space— Earth’s drifting-orbit Moon is so near our birth-homeland, and reflects so much sunlight as “moonshine” that it qualifies as the second brightest light source in our sky. Both Earth and Moon receive a solar irradiance of about 1367.6 Watts per square meter of intercepting surface, and each has its unique absolute spectral reflectance. In post- 1750 AD ecosystem-nations, the matter of romantic moonbeams enthralling stargazers is not yet of everyday practical importance. That may quickly transmogrify as Homo sapiens’ civilization becomes increasingly industrialized, generally more technically reliant upon controlled energy expenditures and in need of beneficial sociological- ecological attractions promoting unity and, perhaps, even lucrative tourism! World-public interest in the Moon is already well-evidenced by cinematically recorded scripted Sci-Fi stories (Jalufka and Koerberl, 1999) as well as by the fascinating 21 August 2017 total solar eclipse following a path West-to-East; only Earth in our Solar System has intelligent residents capable of appreciating all the meanings of a total solar eclipse (Nordgren, 2016). Humanity’s present-day energy needs already exceeds 18,000 terawatts. A prominent group of geoscientific futurists alleged that it should be physically and economically plausible for humanity to multiply, by a factor of fifty, the global production of commercial-scale nuclear energy by AD 2100, leading ultimately to a complete elimination of any fossil fuel use within the Earth’s bioshell,
wherein 20 Terawatts of electricity (60% of total human civilization demand) is met through stable and safe nuclear power generation and 40% is achieved by using sustainable technologies such as various types of solar-power technology, hydropower et cetera (Zhou et al., 2017).
A yet-to-be-established permanent extra-terrestrial human society situated on our Moon could facilitate the full-time monitoring of the Earth’s anthropogenic alterations during the ceno-Anthropocene (Benaroya, 2010; Badescu, 2012; Spudis, 2016). Settlement of the Moon is expected sometime during the 21
Century, possibly after AD 2020. The NASA’s late famed spationaut Neil Armstrong first set foot on the Moon at 2:56 UTC [Coordinated Universal Time] on 21 July 1969 AD: that footprint will be naturally eroded during by the perpetual collisional thermal impulse-caused “Lunar Gardening Effect” sometime
prior to AD 2100.
The Fallen Astronaut
, a small artist-crafted aluminum sculpture deposited by Apollo Mission 15 astronauts will become, possibly, like a balanced Earth desert boulder at rest atop a mini- pinnacle of lunar regolith! “Lunar Gardening Effect” is really the result of the final celestial body impact of “space weather”—that is, “space weather” is usually taken as the variable conditions on the Sun, in space, in the Earth’s magnetic field and ionosphere
that can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technical systems, even endangering human life by sporadic technical system failures (Baker and Lanzerotti, 2016)
. However, in the case of “Lunar Gardening Effect”, there is far less emphasis on human gadgetry gone wrong since the Moon is sparsely populated so far by such vulnerable machines, and certainly no humans are currently living there! However, who can forget Apollo 14 Mission spationaut Alan Shepard (1923-1998) hitting two golf-balls with his Six-iron on 6 February 1971? Sculpture artist Yasuhiro Suzuki (born 1979) displayed a golf-ball whose pits were modelled on the craters of the Moon at the London Design Biennale, 7-27 September 2016, at Somerset House in London, England.
Besides directed mirror-reflection of sunshine toward Earth, a long-term entrenched lunar colony might Moon-manufacture full- spectrum light sources (lamps), of the photonic-crystal filament type, solar-powered and erected and operated on the Moon’s surface, focused upon Earth’s regions, which for a variety of geophysical and sociological reasons, are needful of 24/7/365 illumination. Such an installation may permit control of Earth-received irradiance totals on a regularized basis or, possibly, even substitute for diminished, even entirely absent, Earthly ground-level sunlight as, for example, during a global Nuclear Winter (Pausata et al., 2016) or worldwide cloudiness, the billowing beclouding dust and fiery ash Troposphere and low- Stratosphere aftermath of a very large asteroid strike, for sure anywhere on the planet’s landmass, less certain in on the world-ocean!
About 13,000 terawatts of solar energy impinges the Moon, and except for three hours during a full lunar eclipse, a portion of the Moon is exposed to sunlight all the time. Each square meter of our Sun-lit Moon is equivalent to an old-fashioned 275 Watt incandescent lightbulb. Lasers were invented by the 1960s however white-light lasers became a reality fixture for mainstream light sources only after AD 2015 (Fan et al., 2015). Some energy-use forecasters say that, by AD 2050, human consumers will require 24,000 terawatts of power to allow civilization to function. So, it seems that even if we should harness 100% of the solar power the Moon has to offer people living inside the Earth-bioshell, we will still need to facilitate the burning of fission nuclear energy, exhumed fossil fuels and also still use sustainable Nature-renewed power resources such as hydropower!
During the period AD 2001 to 2201, Earthlings will experience 459 eclipses of the Sun, including partial, annular and hybrid eclipses; Moon colonists, if there be any, during that same two century period, will experience 466 eclipses. The longest possible path width of a total eclipse is less than 300 kilometers; an eclipse occurs randomly at each
place on Earth, on average, once every 375 years. Polar bears wandering at our planet’s North Pole beheld a total solar eclipse on 6 July 1815; on 16 January 2094 AD, anyone unimpaired and prepared working at the cloud-free South Pole will have the opportunity to view a remarkable total solar eclipse. A solar eclipse provides a calculable amount, and recordable predicted reduction, of solar radiation to our planet—and, total solar eclipses can cause notable changes in the ambient meteorology of those places with atmospheres that are “suddenly” thrown into “darkness” (Harrison and Hanna, 2016)!
Glittery “Disco Mirror Ball” Could Make Every Day Special
Team Geographos asks our readers to macro-imagine a future constructed “disco mirror ball” Moon, viewable by every non-blind human as well as all other eyed animals, continuously emitting 225,000 X 10
lumens of artificial light and reflected sunlight from 59% of its Earth-facing area, its greyish natural regolith landscape obscured from human sight by an intervening anthropogenic layer of manufactured materials and erected supporting structures! [The best commercially available white-light emitting diode produces about 25 lumens per watt, whilst the best currently available incandescent white-light lamp
emits approximately 17 lumens per watt. White light lasers could do so much better, of course, as well as be more easily focused.]
A Disco Mirror Ball is a roughly spherical ballroom object hanging above the dancefloor—“ballroom” sounds far too staid respecting the almost pornographic wiggling, bi- and homo sexual thrusting, gyrations and slithery writhing that passes for “couples dancing” nowadays—that reflects or projects visible light in many directions, producing a glittering display pleasing to dancers. Patented on 6 February 1917 in the U.S.A. as 1,214,863, by Louis Bernard Woeste as a “Myriad Reflector”, the Disco Ball Mirror came to the forefront of humanity’s globalized popular culture during the 1970s and is still adored by some persons physically seeking an “alternative reality” dance-scene! The
essentialist cartoonist known by initials “sdf”, at page 46 of the 22 August 2016 issue of
The New Yorker
illustrated a 1970s flashy-clothed male dancer pushing a humongous Disco Mirror Ball uphill, a la a modern-day Sisyphus! The world’s largest diameter outdoor Disco Mirror Ball adorns the beachfront South Promenade path at Blackpool, England. Perhaps the most exciting new incarnation is French artist Benedetto Bufalino’s
Disco Ball Cement Mixer
, operating in Lyon, France from 8-10 December 2016—a truck with a revolving liquid concrete container that had been covered by mirrors and illuminated by spot-lamps!
Disco Mirror Ball, as pictured by Google Images. The ornament appears to be a factory-floor test episode. Possibly, this may be the City of Louisville, State of Kentucky, factory owned by Omega National Products which manufactures 90% of such glamorizing spinning reflectors in the U.S.A. Side Note: This particular view reminds Team Geographos of the 160 kilometer diameter Death Star seen in AD 2016’s popular movie
Rogue One: A Star Wars Story
. (Google Images.)
Could a proposed shimmering Disco Mirror Ball sociologically more attractive than today’s exceedingly dull grey-colored natural regolith
Moon surface? Let’s dance—at least intellectually (Boyle, 2013)! Sociologists usually focus on abstruse abstract social relationships and big social groupings and only a few persons professionally practicing “Sociology” have delved into the mysteries of real-world future Alien- Earthling contacts: David Swift, William Bainbridge and Donald E. Tarter immediately come to mind in this regard (Linde, 2016; Bizony, 2016). In the Earth’s bioshell, weathered buildings often are covered by steel or plastic siding—that is, a new weather-exposed enclosure protecting the older building’s original anthropogenic surface. [The exploded and burnt nuclear fission reactor at Chernobyl, a point-source of deadly radioactivity since AD 1986, first became fully enclosed by a costly-to- fabricate-and-install dome during late-2016 AD, thus keeping future radioactive particles isolated from Russia’s still verdant mutating surrounding countryside.] Is it desirable for a band-shaped “siding” event-process, instigated solely by humans requiring extra-terrestrial solar-power, to occur on a very large-scale at the Moon’s equatorial region?
A Macro-Imagineering Vision Complex of Accomplishment
Team Geographos envisions the Moon as a potentially huge white light-emitting artificialized satellite that has cost humans nothing to loft into its drifting orbit about our Earth! Whatever the source of its glow, the light reaching Earth will arrive in about one second. Were we to cover [also known as wall “siding”] the Moon entirely with mirrors, this Disco Mirror Ball Earth satellite would transmit light isotropically, perhaps attracting the time-delayed notice of far-away sky-observers, intelligent Alien beings—that is, all possible Alien recipients of reflected sunlight—observing Earth from elsewhere in the Milky Way Galaxy (Heller and Pudritz, 2016). If 50% of our Moon were clothed in movable reflective mirrors, it would increase the amount of sunlight glinting off the Earth-Moon System by 20%, enough possibly for a far-distant but vigilant Alien observer to notice immediately, especially if the sunlight
were actively modulated in collective aspect so as to present a regularly timed [periodic] Venetian Blind Effect! The Heat Island Effect over some Earthly cities is known to be reduced by manipulation of their albedos (Morini et al., 2016) and the long-term specular reflection of sunlight off Earth’s ocean [glint], first suggested by Darren M. Williams and Eric Gaidos (2008), may also be revelatory for Alien observers (Cowan et al., 2012). [So would the result of Super-power thermonuclear tests, done by coincidence nearly simultaneously, one at the North Pole by the
U.S.A. and one at the South Pole by the U.S.S.R., which in 1961 set Earth’s sky aflame in the English studio made Sci-Fi movie
The Day the Earth Caught Fire
With their outstanding fluttering Venetian Blind Effect device, something close to the scintillating Disco Mirror Ball Moon macro- project was offered at the 2008 Astrobiology Science Conference in Santa Clara, California, USA by Shawn Domagal-Goldman and Jacob Haqq-Misra in the untitled oral report to Conference Session 19:
[TPF= Terrestrial Planet Finder; SETI= Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence]. They proposed to modulate our Moon’s albedo “…to create a calling-card [greeting signal] detectable by any civilization pointing a TPF-like telescope in our direction. This signal would be created by placing panels on the Moon that have mirrors on one side, solar cells on the other, and a pivot for flipping between the two sides. By simultaneously flipping these panels in a clearly artificial pattern, the apprehended albedo of the Earth-Moon system would serve as evidence of our existence…[and] the signals would be omnidirectional in nature, as they would be sent from the surface…covering half the sky in the case of mirrors on the Moon.” The Domagal-Goldman/Haqq-Misra Venetian Blind Effect device, which is endlessly repeatable, is far superior than testing a few thermonuclear explosives on the Moon’s regolith (Richelson, 2000)—the former
U.S.S.R. actually tested its nicknamed “Tsar Bomba”, the U.S.S.R.’s ridiculous RDS-220 thermonuclear weapon north of the Arctic Circle on
30 October 1961, which had an approximate energy yield of 10
Joules (Khalturin et al., 2005)—or a fictional human-accumulated lunar nuclear waste dump explosion, scripted as happening on 13 September 1999 AD, that was the establishing story premise for the television series
, which had 48 episodes broadcast from 1975-1977; “Breakaway”, Episode 1, imaged that industrial accident lunar catastrophe thrusting Earth’s Moon away from the gravitational influence of Earth
the Sun! However, if we managed to devise and to deliberately use an antimatter-matter interaction on the Moon, then, for example a single proton-antiproton annihilation would release
275 times more energy in the form of kinetic energy of charged particles than nuclear fission of Deuterium-Tritium fusion! Such was the working hypothesis of the Hollywood-mogul financed movie
Angels and Demons
(2009). A slightly smaller installation than proposed by Domagal-Goldman and Haqq-Misra might entail a solar power necklace of devices arranged along the Moon’s 10,914 kilometer-long equator which could subsequently broadcast electricity to the relatively nearby Earth. So, it seems, once again the ancient adage is correct: there really is nothing new under the Sun!
Even a wishy-washy popularized geoscience writer such as David Biello, for instance in his
The Unnatural World: The Race to Remake Civilization in Earth’s Newest Age
(2016), agrees that the physics, chemistry and dynamics of the Earth-atmosphere’s recognized natural event-processes are intensively studied so that humans might become capable of affecting [bettering?] ambient weather, regional climate regimes, and globalized aerial pollution. During the 20
Century, harnessed energy released by consumed mined non-renewable energy
resources was added to a recently assessed variable and interrupted geothermal heat flow as a known, tentatively calculated, net heat source tending to warm all of Earth’s air. Overall, Earth’s economically excavated nonrenewable energy resources are quantitatively finite since humans do not as yet seek to remove the supportive ground
beneath their struggling species’ life-style maintenance activities! Indeed, during 2016 AD, Earth’s “physical technosphere” was quantified as “…the summed output of the contemporary human enterprise….Preliminary assessments suggest a technosphere mass of approximately 30 trillion tonnes…, which helps support a human biomass that, despite recent growth, is ~5 orders of magnitude smaller” (Zalasiewicz et al., 2016, page 1). This estimated fact portends the Moon’s industrialization next!
Abrupt geophysical catastrophes, both natural and artificial, do impend however. Earth-confined civilization, generally conversant with the likeliness of certain generally specified geologic and climatic regime event-processes, may eventually seek to exploit another close celestial body’s crust—the Moon’s—for its renewable energy sources derived from, and imparted by, the Sun, photovoltaic electricity based on current solar irradiance and industrially harvested
He isotope fusion fuel energy founded on naturally accumulated past solar wind- deposited elements (Golub and Pasachoff, 2017). Pelted constantly by
meteoroids, the Moon’s entire surface is “gardened” [not tilled agriculturally by vegetable food-requiring humans, but churned and pulverized by Nature’s constant space-sourced rocky debris hits] to a depth of about two centimeters approximately every 81,000 years (Speyerer, 2016), altering the reflectance of its greyish lunar regolith coating. Also, our Moon gravitationally holds a tenuous enshrouding “cloud” of orbiting dust particles (Horanyi et al., 2016) which is bound to affect the establishment and maintainability of any equator-sited human solar-power installation. In other words, humanity’s ecological footprint on the Moon, as in the “Anthropocene” Earth-bioshell, is naturally limited in identifiable duration time (Wiedmann and Barrett, 2010)!
The Lunar Orbiter Camera confirmed the formation of a new lunar crater, 18.8 meters in diameter, on 17 March 2013 AD (Robinson et al.,
2015). Blast-off rocket exhaust gases from manned vehicles have, in fact, generated somewhat of an anthropogenic atmosphere for the Moon; other vehicles left to operate on the Moon unsupervised, also have added to that atmospheric haze since AD 1972 (Wagner et al., 2017). Bioterrorism has appeared in literature produced by H.G. Wells (1866-1946) and others since before World War II (Costa and Banos, 2016).
During the late-20
Century’s doomsday literature, one story seems to really highlight Alien terrorism: a single replicative “Alien- made nanobot” embedded in a retrieved lunar rock sample, named “Moonseed” by Sci-Fi writer Stephen Baxter (born 1957) in
(1998), accidently is returned to Earth by a fictitious Apollo 18 Mission crew, which eventuates in a “grey goo” infective event-process geo- biological catastrophe! This novel inspired Team Geographos to develop this “grey goo” global risk further in Chapter Five: the final result is an invasive and predatory Alien-caused singular human companionship survival scenario! Small marine crustaceans [Hyperiids] commonly afloat in planet’s world-ocean have transparent bodies that helps camouflage them from predators; supplementing transparency, these creatures have added a dense layer of nano-sized spherical bacteria which can reduce surface blue-green light-reflections, making them difficult targets for predacious marine creatures (Bagge et al., 2016). Someday, humans could find Molecular Nanotechnology products to be a planet-saving technology! It may seem as ridiculous as Hollywood’s four serialized
films conceived by a graduate of San Francisco State College, Anthony Ferrante (Anon., 2016). Team Geographos’ anti-pathological Alien invasion passive fight-back plan will be minus such soul-stirring Hollywood-styled musical accompaniment (Nosal et al., 2016)
The Most Familiar Star and Our Earth-Moon System
Seventy thousand years ago, a rogue red dwarf star, WISE J072003.20-084651.2, passed through the outermost parts of our Solar System’s Oort Cloud of natural space debris; no other star in the Universe in known to have approached our Sun so closely. But, as a dim stellar object, about 1/50
what a normal human eye can apprehend, it went unseen by our ancient forebears, whether trudging the drylands of Africa or above the Arctic Circle in Greenland (Mamajek et al., 2015). So, our Sun is the most significant energy source for the Earth’s
bioshell. Continuous close monitoring of the Sun via human-launched outer space probes first commenced during February 1996 when the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory became operational. Isotropic radiation originating at the top of the Sun’s photosphere has an average flux of about 63 megawatts per square meter! Earth’s mean total insolation—that is, the solar radiation actually absorbed by our mostly blue hued planet’s sub-aerial surfaces, heating all impinged bare rocks, soils, freshwater and seawater—is approximately 168 watts per square meter. The airless Moon ground, however, receives about 1,367 watts per square meter of surface—some of which is reflected, causing some Earth air undergoing a full Moon occurrence to be warmer by
Celsius compared to the time of the new Moon (Anyamba and
Susskind, 2000). [In future, swarms of self-propelled space probes, in heliocentric orbit, driven by solar radiation pressure, might form “…massively parallel sensing for space science applications by providing…simultaneous multi-point measurements of [our Solar System’s] magnetic field strength and direction” (McInnes, 2016, page 502).] The almost spherical celestial object’s lunar-grey solid surface is so visibly different from our beautiful inhabited Earth that “moonscape” is a common synonym for “eyesore”, “blighted”, “scarred” and “uninhabitable”!
Selenography of the Moon, the equivalent of Geography for our Earth, has few big large-scale landmarks other than innumerable geologically old pockmarks and some new craters, a few of which were and are made by crashing human-made, rocket propelled probes—such as the Earth’s obvious ocean/land divide—to serve as an easily recognizable region-organizing visible geophysical framework for all Geoscience studies and future industry managers. Physiography’s practitioners are sometimes truly stumped by this lack of reality definitions for their mapping demarcations. Even as Neil A. Armstrong first stepped onto the collision-pitted Moon on 20 July 1969 AD, macro- engineers were still uncertain about that place’s human-scale geomorphology. At great American taxpayer cost—more than USD$100 billion—the NASA’s Apollo Mission allowed 3-4% of the population segment of Earth’s burgeoning extant Homo sapiens civilization “…exceptional niches of innovation to be explored” (Gisler and Sornette, 2009, page 55).
Whether laboriously walking in the exceedingly clumsy encumbering spacesuits of that era (Cadogan, 2015), or riding each of the three manned moon buggies [Lunar Roving Vehicles in the NASA vernacular] abandoned in then-operable condition by Apollo Missions 15, 16, an 17, those convivial teams of AD 1971-1972 spationauts inscribed the Moon concertedly with their technological and personal markings, even including special left-behind commemorative artworks: Apollo Mission 15 spationauts smuggled
The Fallen Astronaut
to its current resting place on the lunar surface honoring all so far deceased spationauts. [In terms of popular Sci-Fi moving-picture presentations of those sealed and pressurized protective human garments, Gary Westfahl’s
The Spacesuit Film: A History, 1918-1969
(2012) is a fascinating read.] For past and future human lunar landscape explorers, the Moon’s horizon, along any six kilometer chord, is a mere 1.5 meters, offering limited vistas to all trudging or cart-carried spationauts
as well as mobile non-flying or ballistic drones and self-actuated Artificially Intelligent robots.
Lunatic Catastrophe Scenarios?
Earthly “anthropogenic global warming”, first widely touted during the late-20
Century as techno-apocalypticism, is pure crisis rhetoric that is a commonplace geographical concept promoted in just about every day’s broadcast news reports—newscasts whose hosts/readers seem almost to relish baiting the world-public with their “factual stories” of newly discovered existential risks (Proske, 2008) and
actual fresh disasters that have or will soon affect humans and their vulnerable life-line infrastructures! Indeed, the so-called anthropic global warming air event-process is the keystone argument for geophysical evidence wielded by those misleading Green-propaganda grounded theorists who have declared a name for an Earth-only Geologic Time period—the ceno-“Anthropocene”.
Because of smog and other such obscurities, the Earth radiates about one to two watts per square meter owing to anthropogenic carbon dioxide gas atmospheric buildup. It is comparable to an installation of two decorative one-watt Christmas tree lights on every square meter of our Earth’s surface, of course lit night and day! Complex non-linear mechanical, chemical, and biological interactions amongst the material and energy components of the Earth-Moon System are increasingly important in focused Macro-Imagineering R&D. These interactions are mostly driven externally by the Sun and internally by geothermal heat flow—and, these interactions of Nature are by no means completely understood! Anthropic Earth-bioshell activity, which trends to enforce schedules on objects and flows, must be included in all planetary event-process causation-chain geophysical explanations, especially since our Space Age’s October 1957 AD inauguration. Nevertheless, the unexpected, sudden—as well as accurately or inaccurately forecasted—future geophysical catastrophe
can affect the Earth-Moon System, causing profound and comprehensive macro-planned post-disaster event-process readjustments of human societal behaviors.
Direct human and robotic exploration of the Moon by spationauts on foot or independent wheeled or treaded machines have caused a detectable degradation of the presumed pre-Space Age lunar surface vacuum because of the subsequent emplacement of a tenuous, very unnatural Moon atmosphere composed of exotic gases (Stern, 1993). During the Space Age’s earliest years, both the U.S.A. [Project A119] and the former U.S.S.R. [Project E-4] considered exploding rocket- delivered thermonuclear warheads on the Moon’s near-side (Richelson, 2000): if done, such explosions would have generated radioactive fallout that might have markedly affects geological dating results and have huge implications for all future Moon colonization efforts! Monstrous explosions at the surface, of course, would have the same effect as when a meteor strikes the Moon’s ground (Clark et al., 2015). In other words, this conscious act of celestial body depredation would duplicate Nature’s primarily ballistic and electrostatic forces that transport lunar sediments. This crudest, unholy macro-project was supposed, by its demented devisors, to facilitate spectrographic observations of surface-derived material ejecta—what a truly option- foreclosing, grossly destructive, mineralogical survey procedural investigative technique! For sure, Armstrong, as well as his daring colleagues participating in the technologically bold Apollo Mission, might have been ordered by the NASA to inspect one or more anthropogenic lunar craters as well as to collect samples of unnaturally radioactive rock and gas. Speculative hard Science Sci-Fi, such as the previous statement, helps to vivify the previously made pertinent Team Geographos Macro-Imagineering comments of this textbook.
General nuclear warfare’s infamous outcome, the anthropogenic post-war Nuclear Winter, surprise dust-raising large asteroid and/or
comet impacts, unpreventable regional volcanic super-eruptions (Heiken, 2013) or a secretive special-interest group’s evil attempted Geo-engineering (Abelkop and Carlson, 2012) are major event- processes often alleged as the most likely to adversely affect the Earth- atmosphere’s albedo and, thus, our planet’s habitability. Each of these could affect human life-styles because people are dependent on annual crop yields; global agriculture is subject to sunlight’s variations and interruptions since Nature’s basic life-sustaining output is essentially photosynthetic. Furthermore, such vastly impactful “global cooling” natural and anthropogenic events might, possibly, instigate a permanent icy covering of Earth’s surface. But, as Sci-Fi writers have dramatically elucidated, a significantly less probable “global cooling” may be started by the Earth-Moon System’s encountering a dense interstellar gas and particle cloud which likely could cause our Sun’s heliosphere to contract, thereby exposing our air to previously unknown flows of cosmic energy and unmeasured materials. Earth air might then transform into a consolidated, stratified mass of various [formerly gas} solids chilled to their respective solidities by termination of solar energy input and thus forming a topmost frozen layer—not permafrost—about 10 meters thick. Such a disaster can be caused by the Earth-Moon System’s gravitational scattering, and ejection from our Solar System, following that celestial dual-body unit’s close- encounter with a foreign star, resulting in our globular homeland forcibly becoming unbound from its parent Sun, another rogue planet destined to wander the Universe.
Some obviously important Earth-atmosphere mysteries, such as “global dimming” [first discovered in 1989] and “global brightening” [first scientifically examined by 2005] remain largely unsolved (Imamovic et al., 2016). Yet, they are crucial for the macro-planning and operational management of the vast field installations of solar-power plants! At the same time during our Earthly Anthropocene, the facts of these phenomena must be found or any Geo-engineering of the
planet’s air—say, with stratospheric aerosol distribution (MacMartin et al., 2016)—cannot be properly done, with results according to even the most malleable of Macro-Engineering expectations! The “global” phrasing selection, whether in Science journal articles or popularized Science news reporting, is extremely misleading since the aerial phenomena observed are strictly regional: each year in some places less sunlight fully penetrates our air to heat rocks and soils, stimulate plant growth, and warm living creatures whilst, at the same time, in other Earth-bioshell places, due to mitigation efforts reducing smog and aerial industrial pollutant densities in air, receive at ground level more recorded sunlight than during immediate previous years. So, clearly, aversive clean air legislation has been helpful, bettering humanity’s health.
True anthropogenic global dimming may someday be invoked by Macro-Engineering to thwart dangerous, impending Earth atmosphere global warming via a deliberate human industrial effort initiating the widespread dispersal of intentionally injected sulfur aerosols [particles of matter] to reflect various percentages of incoming solar radiation. To put this global dimming macro-project into a Sci-Fi comic rather than serious cosmic perspective by simply deleting the “S” (a stand-in for “Science”), Team Geographos calculate that a 3% per decade reduction of the total sunlight reaching Earth—by whatever means, including a man-made interplanetary parasol located between the Sun and Earth— would result, mathematically speaking, with a potential for total darkness after about 330 years. The ultimate doomsday for the Earth bioshell would come as a result of the geologic and biotic event- processes occurring following such an (nearly impossible) interruption. Recall Hollywood’s Sci-Fi epic
(2000)! Even covered by a new stratum of frozen gases, our Earth’s voluminous ocean would retain its liquidity. That means, basically, humans should then mine fluid seawater using only Earth’s geothermal heat, as per U.S.A. Patent Application Publication 2016/0312646, “Electricity generation and
water desalinization in constructed shafts utilizing geothermal heat”, issued to Derric Juano on 21 April 2016.
Century Curatorial Earth-Moon System Macro-management
As a direct consequence of certain scientific discoveries and inventions after World War II, people are still at risk of losing all their life-support infrastructures and even, possibly, the Earth-bioshell ground! During AD 1998, one of us [R.B.C.] coined an apparently useful phrase, “Green-glass Effect”, naming a prospective geophysical threat to all life—for example, Nuclear Winter—that could, literally, take place after a generalized anthropogenic conflagration that could not possibly end our so-called Anthropocene. On 16 July 1945, at 5:29:45 AM, in the
clear and calm air mass then above 33.6
North latitude by 106.4
longitude U.S.A. our world’s first nuclear fission device was exploded. The ,device was held off the ground surface, atop a 30.5 meter high tower, and during its fireball period produced a glassy geomorphic ground surface consisting of a new material, Trinitite, which is composed of re-solidified and radioactive melted “…arkosic sand with alluvial, aeolian, evaporitic, and volcanic components” (Bellucci et al., 2014, page 70). That existentially risky State of New Mexico test explosion—a mere 20 kilotonnes of TNT-equivalent yield—produced approximately 430,257 square meters of thin Trinitite crust. General nuclear war, a brief epigenic event instigated by a nationalized
, would create on Earth’s discrete landmasses thousands of darkly-tinged circular spots of glazed landscape….Such deathly ‘shadows’ of humanity’s immediate past warfare would probably disfigure postwar lands everywhere. [These greenish landscape spots will resemble those made and emplaced by Nature on the tiny erupted Mediterranean Sea Basin island of Pantelleria (Williams et al., 2014).] However, global [N]uclear [W]inter might be shortened in duration by an atmospheric circulation stimulated by these numerous darkened regions with artificial albedos—all unnaturally made without a macro-
project plan: a ‘green-glass effect’ could replace a broken [G]reenhouse [E]ffect” (Cathcart, 1998, page 58). In other words, violently deconstructed ruins as well as radioactive urban debris of all kinds becomes glassified and partially redemptive by hastening postwar Earth-bioshell recovery (Stone, 2016)! The Venezuelan artist Ernesto Klar (born 1976) showed his artwork
Ernesto Klar, Invisible Disparities: Anthropic Rock 2015
, which consisted of agglomerated rocky particles melted into a distinctive rough shape, in New York City at Postmasters gallery.
Ernesto Klar’s self-manufactured rock, speared and mounted like a classroom-scale world globe. Its mineralogical appearance closely resembles Trinitite samples. (With kind Permission of the artist-traveler granted 24 November 2016, obtained at his personal website: klaresque.org.)
It is improbable that all humans will disappear forever unless on account of multiple thermonuclear blasts, our world becomes totally incinerated. [Precluding generation of the “Green-glass Effect” is another weaponry deployment choice: deployment and use of matter- antimatter explosive can thoroughly dissolve our world, its every component—so far, as of AD 2016, no violations of the Physics corollary that a particle and its antiparticle have the same mass has ever been observed in any necessarily elaborate laboratory experiment (Hori et al., 2016).] Whether Sci-Fi stories, or real Science documentation, in
other words, it is possible to convert our Earth into invisible atomic particles, rather like the realized human mind-figment Id-Creature of
, somewhat clustered in an orbit circling our Sun!
Macro-Imagineering Our Moon: Show-Biz Sparkle at Last!
Offsetting Earth’s possible future total “global dimming” will be a broadly vital challenge to the abilities and capabilities of the most masterful extant proponents of Space Age Macro-Imagineering and Macro-Engineering. After all, until the early-21
Century, only certain aspects of near-term future ancillary Moon Base development were fully assessed. Complete industrialization of the Moon’s 37.96 X 10
square kilometer surface is usually portrayed as humankind’s quest for additional energy, ores, and other resources. All realistic Macro- Imagineering projections foresee the high cost of ensconcing Earthlings comfortably on the Moon. Often, pro-Moon exploration sales-pitches are offerings of the tantalizing prospect of mining
He as a newfound source of wealth (Simko and Gray, 2014):
He exists in Earth’s mantle, but remains unavailable at the Earth-surface in quantities larger than those suitable for laboratory research, about 0.5 tonnes. However, this light isotope of ordinary helium arrives on the Moon via solar energy. It seems to be homogenously distributed as the lunar regolith also seems to be in a saturation state of
He trapped by minerals through chemical bonding, forming a mineable ore component. The solar wind persistently sweeping our Solar System, and which becomes embedded continuously in the lunar regolith’s dust, is the essential creative action of Nature. Deposited during a period of four billion plus years, supposedly two square kilometers of lunar surface, to a depth of three meters, contains 100 kilograms of
He, more than enough to power a 1,000 Megawatt
production power-plant for a year (Schmidt, 2006, page 5). It has been demonstrated in laboratories that for every tonne of
He that might be mined, over 18,000 tonnes of valuable life- support materials [hydrogen, water, nitrogen, carbon compounds and
methane] may be usefully produced. Except for hawked souvenirs and potential Moon-sited solar-power plants, no other lunar resources besides
He seem to be suitable for profitable use within our Earth- bioshell—certainly intensive exploration may alter that exploitation conclusion! Regardless of whether
He is present in such a profuse quantity, the sobering fact is than humans have yet to significantly master confined nuclear fusion; despite more than 60 years of intensive, costly R&D, no truly workable controlled nuclear fusion plasma-confining machines exist that can be harnessed to produce civilization’s electricity commercially. Still, fusion chain-reactions are the main source of energy generation in the known Universe as well as, indirectly, the origin of nearly all Earthly energy resources, including fossil fuels and, unlike fission reactions, fusion chain-reactions do not produce radioactive waste directly but, instead, causes radioactivity in the enclosure materials, the actual chain-reaction container.
Owing to its 1.63 meter per second surface gravity acceleration, the maximum speed of movement for any wheeled vehicle traversing the Moon’s jagged rock outcrops, craters and dusty regolith is about 40 kilometers per hour; a solar-powered, autonomous, robotic, Sun- synchronous, rolling Moon exploration vehicle must move at only 16.6 kilometers per hour along the Moon’s equator to just keep pace with the Sun’s overhead movement. Greater wheeled-vehicle speeds might be achieved by using shaded-from-the-Sun magnetic levitation railroads, with pillar-and-span elevated magnetically levitated (MagLev) trains locked to tied-down rail sets, only subject to low-intensity “moonquakes” due to various causes and ordinary constant space debris bombardment. In a sense, the entire Moon, from humanity’s perspective, is a Sun-and-Earth-lit potential parking lot for active and inactive landed space vehicles and lunar-based freight/passenger- carrying rovers. Even self-moving autonomous and unmanned factories are presumed to be an attainable near-term future lunar technology: many robotics experts assume such solar-powered mobile multi-
machine complexes can be used to construct, by means of adapted stereo-lithographic techniques from in-situ superficial resources [chiefly regolith and breccia], a vast area of built-in-place/used-in-place solar energy collection panels.
During the 1970s, the Apollo Missions repeatedly tested solar- panels intentionally placed upon the lunar surface at various times. Summarizing: a large percentage, but much less than 100%, of the Moon’s surface may become covered by a special type of the late James Ross Underwood’s classification for Anthropic Rock, knitted into a lunar-enshrouding anthropogenic rock-like reflectively shiny Moon surface that is interlaced and structurally reinforced by telecommunications and electricity-transmitting cables (Metzger et al., 2013). That is not far from being a so-called “parking lot” surface! Team Geographos suspects it may be possible to convert most of the Moon surface into one consolidated solar-power collection panel. Were a purely Anthropic Rock surface ever to be manufactured it could obliterate the July 1969 Apollo Moon Mission landing site unless it were avoided. This installation would certainly constitute a special kind of new super-structure, laid by a datable, robotic, wheeled facility (Lewis- Weber, 2016; Tucker, 2011).
An equatorial circumferential LUNA RING of connected photovoltaic solar-power panels encircling the Moon at its 10,917 kilometer-long equatorial belt: as shown here, the LUNA RING has a width of approximately 400 kilometers. So, spatially, its working area should be about 4,365,600 square kilometers! In other words, a large area of the Moon could become an enormous glittering ceramic surface continuously generating, possibly, as much as 24 Terawatts of power that would be transmitted [lasers, microwaves] for consumption by widespread human infrastructures situated within the Earth-bioshell. (Image: Google Images.)
Contemporaneously, these motile robotic strip-miners/solar panel factories could collect
He if needed, since the Moon is estimated to be the depositional site of about 1,000,000 tonnes of that supposedly valuable stuff! Used to fuel fusion nuclear reactors located entirely outside of our planet’s bioshell,
He should be a realizable resource for humanity’s needs and wants, if at a very high monetary price. Because of Earth’s apparent proximity, the round-trip communications period for a Moon-traversing tele-robot ranges from about 2.4 seconds (at lunar perigee) to 2.7 seconds (at lunar apogee). Team Geographos notes that such spatially widespread automated or tele-existence monitored and directed
He-harvesters/pavement-makers, fostered by cost-conscious 21
Century industrialists and government bureaucracies, may be tarnished with the appellation equivalent of Earth’s “primitive polluters” (African and Indonesian shifting cultivators, for example). There is an unresolved macro-problem related to LUNA RING: what might be the Moon’s albedo
installation of a super- structure composed of several kinds of in-situ manufactured artificial materials? William Henry Pickering (1858-1938) calculated that a conspicuous 1.3 square kilometer mirror placed in an Earthly sunny landscape could signal any intelligent foreign persons then living on Mars; the aforementioned indirect Alien-contact macro-project proposed by Shawn Domagal-Goldman and Jacob Haqq-Misra is
gargantuan by comparison with Dr. Pickering’s miniscule heliograph! In our view, it is untrue that the first human lunar landing during July of AD 1969 was “…the worst thing to happen to our imaginations…” (Sarukkai, 2010, page 216); instead, extensions and widenings of human imagination have occurred for, unlike the Sun, humans may safely look at the Moon in its totality, including its newest visible anthropogenic modifications!
Super-Futuristic, but Non-Sci-Fi, Moon-Day Macro-Project
Because Earth rotates one day faster than the Moon revolves, and dissipation leads to a time lag in the response of the Earth to the tide- raising potential, the Earth’s tidal bulge leads the Moon. A net torque retards Earth’s axial spin and, at the same time, increases the Moon’s orbital angular momentum, thereby increasing the Earth-Moon System separation distance by about 3.8 centimeters each year Earth’s slowing rotation results in longer days—that is, more than the standard twenty- four hours—as well as a longer month; once the length of an Earth day equals a month, the tidal friction connection will cease several hundred million years hence (Stephenson et al., 2016). When the Earth-Moon System separation becomes 383,000-434,000 kilometers at its perigee- apogee, a Moon-caused total solar eclipse will never again occur naturally, only unnaturally—as, for instance, if human Macro- Engineering ever emplaced a solar parasol between Earth and our central star. In other words, it is only during this unique future moment in Earth’s Geologic Time [still a ceno-Anthropocene?] and Astrologic Time that the Moon and the Sun appear almost the same diameter!
Our Moon’s far-side went unobserved until the former U.S.S.R.’s Luna-3 spacecraft captured the first images of it during 1959 AD. Energy utilization by humans is an important driver of all civilization advancements considered as progress. A solar energy plant located at the Moon’s poles—where it is possible to ignore the Moon’s slight axial tilt of about 1.5
—should be capable of nearly continuous operation,
whereas a solar power plant sited at the Moon’s equator, where darkness prevails for approximately half a month would have down- times—periods of almost zero operational capability. Perhaps covering much more of the lunar surface, the Disco Mirror Ball macro-project, ought to help to render the task of choosing power plant sites almost unneeded! Can our Moon, superficially remade to resemble a glittering Disco Mirror Ball, cause eye-health macro-problems for all Earthlings (Laframboise and Chou, 2000)? What might be the induced albedo of a glassy Moon sheath composed of man-made photovoltaic panels? What might be the perceptible color hue of that glimmering celestial object in our nighttime sky: the fresh butter-color of an AD 2034 Super- Moon or the greenish twinkling of a compressed ball of Trinitite? At that time, the Moon will be exhibiting the full results of bioturbation— the first in its entire existence—more particularly, bioturbation of its dull-colored regolith by space-suited humans, their machines and, in greenhouses, plants and their associated biota! In fact, it is possible to Macro-Imagineer a globalized lunar Anthropostrome, an ensemble of encapsulated living human bodies (Toloudi, 2016), roving AI machines and other operational artifacts encasing much of the Moon’s surface on the far-side and the near-side! [The Greek word “stroma” literally means “carpet” (Passerini, 1984).]
Moon-lit Earth: Artificially Augmented Moonshine?
The citizens of a small town located in the shadow-zone of Austrian mountains, Rattenberg (47
26’ 20” North latitude by 11
53’ 36” East longitude), enjoy very little sunshine during Earth’s Northern Hemisphere winter season. Too, the same kind of daytime gloom impacts the ambient daily living conditions for Norway’s town of Rjukan (59
52’ 44” North latitude by 8
35’ 38” East longitude),
Italy’s town of Viganella (46
3’ North latitude by 8
11’ East longitude).
In each instance, these towns contracted macro-engineers to place heliostats on ground high above their towns capable of reflecting some
available sunlight onto their depressingly shaded municipalities. And, the same light-mirror redirection technique has been proposed by macro-imagineers for other densely populated urban localities, especially those with narrow streets or those lined by extremely tall buildings (El-Henawy et al., 2014). On a larger geographical scale, it is possible—at least to imagine—deliberate introduction of additional sunshine to an Earth affected by regional smog/dust dimming [“Asian Brown Cloud” affecting India and China?] or, more shockingly, actual global dimming initiated by whatever cause.
Rjukan, Norway’s civic-square brightened by sunlight delivered by controlled mirrors from the mountainside dominating the valley village that is facing the Sun. (Google Images.)
Earth-bioshell dimming, whatever its expanse, might be mitigated by installation of many replaceable full-spectrum lightbulbs or, more likely, encased photonic-crystal filaments everywhere on the Moon’s hard- vacuum regolith surface, made to glow by electricity furnished from lunar nuclear fusion reactors using mined
He and Deuterium or by simply reflecting (via directed mirrors) the sunlight that always impinges the Moon. The Moon’s axis of rotation is not lined up perpendicular to its orbit—it is off-kilter by approximately 1.5
and, so, sometimes the Moon’s poles tip slightly toward Earth. There is no place
in the Earth-bioshell where it would be impossible to see at least some phases of the Moon—except if the local landscape topography were a crater, deep canyon, or immediately adjacent to a very high mountain range or mountain summit. However, if humans or Alien explorers are located on our Moon’s far-side, then neither group could ever see Earth.
The Moon was first observed from Earth by radar in 1946 (Ciarletti, 2016). [True aficionados of the entertainment
surely must recall that radar became famously used a decade after the Moon’s initial radar survey, when the human-staffed United Planets Cruiser C-57-D first approached Altair-4 only to be unexpectedly scanned by ground-based radar with an antenna footprint of 1,036 square kilometers! Its enormity was astonishing because the 12 final Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS) operational sites had not yet been sufficiently deployed since the “Go” to build” Federal Government agency order of 7 November 1957. BMEWS was meant to detect incoming U.S.S.R. Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles warhead- nosecones, a very real-world geopolitical threat to North America and Western Europe.] The U.S.A. inventor Gregory A. Piccionelli was awarded U.S. Patent 8,025,002 B2, “Planetary Impact Defense System” on 27 September 2011 that implies use of the Moon as a base to shield Earth and the moons Phobos and Deimos as a means for defending Mars whilst undergoing terraformation.
Also, since the Moon’s orbit is an ellipse it moves slower when farthest from Earth (apogee), and faster when closest to Earth in its orbital path (perigee). As a result, whilst the Moon rotates in the same period it revolves—that is, a 1/1 spin resonance—it thus sometimes does not keep up with the revolution and for other periods outpaces it. This means that mirrors or lightbulbs, emitting tightly-collimated beams vertically from a lunar co-ordinate at 0
East/West, would sometimes be aimed slightly to the right of distant Earth, sometimes slightly to the
left. Seen from the Moon, Earth is about 2
wide. During 1982, Christian Marchal (1953-2013)—at one time Managing Editor of the periodical
(Chang et al., 2014)—and Max Claude Jules Salmon (1913-1999) clearly detailed, edifying insights related to spectacularly complicated geometrical-astronomy celestial configurations.
Team [Sci-Fi] Geographos: Voices for NOOM?
We speculate that, someday in the far-future, humans and/or their surrogates will construct a Dyson Sphere where our Solar System now moves (Cathcart, 1983). Rocky planets can be evaporated by solar energy—for example, the short-period exoplanet KIC 12557548b has, evidently, already lost 80% of its formation mass by solar evaporation alone and “…today we may be observing its naked iron core” (Perez- Becker and Chiang, 2013, page 2294). [Might Earth’s hypothesized J.M. Herndon Georeactor also be revealed? Dr. Herndon’s unproved hypothesis states that Earth’s innermost-core is a homogenously distributed radioactive heating source, possibly overlain by a compositionally convective inner core/mantle boundary layer and that, therefore, viscous and magnetic stresses—Earth’s dynamo—within that unique material layer produces Earth’s variable geomagnetic field. Dr. Herndon suggests the geomagnetic field, which is known to reverse and diminish in strength, someday may reverse its planetary orientation, possibly even during the ceno-Anthropocene!]
At the time of Earth’s intentional breakup into asteroids at the hands of humans, it might be decidedly appropriate to retain the Moon in a whole physical state: NOOM is, of course, MOON spelled backwards, for Team Geographos’ intents and purposes, a mirrored word image! NOOM signifies “Natural Observatory Orb Macro-Project”. The gravitational effect of a spherical distribution of attractive mass— that is, a Sun-enrobing swarm forming a Dyson Sphere of uniform material density—our NOOM situated anywhere within the space enclosed by a swarm of Sun-orbiting objects, whether still natural or
thoroughly artificialized, would be exactly zero! NOOM might then function as a “manned” science laboratory and Dyson Sphere Command Center focused on the Sun (helioseismology and solar wind research) because space weather will affect the solar wind pressurization of the Dyson Sphere swarm, and which must continue as long as the Dyson Sphere exhibits a unitary formation!
And, a NOOM Command Center ought to be made available to any pilots riding inside a Dyson Sphere intentionally powered to shift its natural trajectory in the Milky Way Galaxy by employing the Stellar Engine Sun-harnessing propulsion technique (Badescu and Cathcart, 2006; Forgan, 2013). Instigated by humans, or their AI descendants, a Dyson Sphere in “our” part of the Milky Way Galaxy would constitute the biggest kinetic artwork possible with our Sun as its focus—it might be considered an anthropogenic/machinic solar substructure! In such an enormous dispositional act, the overall result might also become an act of friendly messaging—that is, a rearrangement of our star, possibly the first of many, in order to create a signpost hailing intelligent Aliens: Franciso Infante-Arana (born 1943) has macro-imagined a far-future willful anthropogenic “reconstruction of the firmament” (Infante, 1992): were his billboard-style communication selected to convey by encoding the first digits of 3.14159264…, the result would be visible “Pi in the Sky” of multiple Alien-inhabited worlds! The brightest stars in our sky are often the closest, and the nearest stars usually have the fastest proper motions spanning Earth’s sky, so to be really noticeable, it might be necessary to complete this feat of Astro-Engineering during a period of Astrologic Time shorter than 50,000 years in order not to be misapprehended by Aliens as some chance cosmic occurrence!
First commercialized as a toy in the U.S.A. by circa AD 1940, MAGIC ROCKS—those small chunks of various metallic compounds immersed in a tanked sodium silicate water solution—created colorful gel extrusions in any water-filled bowl for children’s short-term
amusement. [In reality, glowing crystals immersed in freshwater are now used to detect and remove heavy metals such a lead and mercury from drinking water (Rudd et al., 2016). Serious scientists have long mused on the idea that there might, somewhere, actually be an organosilicon-based life-form, in addition to the known carbon-based life-forms. Using Green-inspired “directed evolution” Science, modern- day scientists have induced, by laboratory selection event-process techniques, an Earthly bacterium to produce a protein [cytochrome c] that permits such silicon-carbon bonds (Kan et al., 2016)! Likewise, Sci- Fi writers, paralleling scientist’s earlier ponderings, have postulated
interesting intelligent life-forms comprised of silicon: in the 25
Episode of the U.S.A.-televised First Season of
, “The Devil in the Dark”, which was transmitted on 9 March 1967, a human mining colony on the fictitious planet Janus VI is plagued by a lumpy mobile rock-creature, the last a specimen of the Horta species. There is only one antagonist to the humans, a single motherly Horta—they may be sexless, it is fiction after all—tending the spherical silicon eggs of a species that becomes cyclically extinct every 50,000 years. The conflict is eventually resolved satisfactorily and amicably, with a mutually concluded understanding whereby the Horta, in renewed greater numbers due to egg hatchings, find valuable rare mineral ores for the human miners and, in exchange, the human miners leave the chosen Horta homeland undisturbed.
Probably, this familiar aired plotline is known to readers of Italo Calvino’s 1968 short-story
The Stone Sky
(Grant, 2014). Italo Giovanni Calvino Mameli (1923-1985) postsaged the philosophical musings of Hilary Whitehall Putnam (1926-2016) that extant Earthly rocks may already have minds, possessing properties which humans normally associate exclusively with Homo sapiens mentality! See the Appendix, pages 120-125, of his 1988 book
Representation and Reality
. The unnamed lone Horta was played by the Horta costume’s designer, horizontal crawling stuntman and acrobat Janos Prohaska (1919-1974).
Concrete Art was popular from the 1950s to about 1964 before it faded in popularity (Rider, 2015). However, during July 1986, Sci-Fi graphic- novelist Paul Chadwick (born 1957) first cast his Super-hero as a male human transplanted by Aliens into a flexible granite-like 2.2 meter-tall cyborg body exhibiting awesome strength and almost extra-sensory perception in his series of books based on
Civilization’s Spun-off Future: Rogue or Mobilized Earth
Courageous contemporary astronomers perceive outer space imbued with the expectation of spying grand-scale Alien technologies (Carrigan, 2010; Sivaram et al., 2014; Jones, 2015). Some Sun-like stars, such as 18 Scorpii and HD 98618, are veritable “shipyards” creating, amongst other celestial objects and energies, rogue planets [also known as gravitationally unbound planets, nomads not orbiting any star] moving through interstellar space’s vastness, possibly carrying different forms of life (Strigari et al., 2012). During AD 1958-1962, the intellectually gifted astronomer Harlow Shapley alone initiated the controversy of Earth-mass “stray planets” (Shapley, 1958, page 56). During the Cold War year of 1951, Richard Buckminster Fuller (1895- 1983) coined a new description for Homo sapiens’ world when he first used the phrase “Spaceship Earth” to characterize the total ensemble of Nature and human artifacts in which today’s culturally divided humans still find themselves enmeshed. [During AD 1979, Fuller almost got the chance—funding—to convert a typical American small-town, Winooski, State of Vermont, into a domed “space station” of sorts, or the equivalent of an imagined AD 2033 habitation-dome for Mars as seen, from 14 November until 5 December 2016 in the National Geographic-sponsored four-episode series
!] Particularly impressive during the ceno-Anthropocene, macro-engineers refer to this ensemble as humanity’s Anthropostrome. Fuller’s useful phrase is an encompassing geographical label as well as a geo-philosophical viewpoint on the Earth-crust’s technosphere defined by the operational
range of the most powerful rock-penetrating machines as well as low- Earth orbiting craft such as the International Space Station. And, Bjorn Wallsten’s “world urks” must figure into any accurate geophysical assessment! About 7.3 billion humans are today living proof that stars like the Sun can host habitable planets, which are telluric worlds that appear to exhibit some or all of the characteristics and capacity to harbor life: century hence, perhaps an Asteroid Belt Astronomical Telescope—SEE: Chapter Five—will actually allow AI robotonaut- astronomers to espy Alien-generated pollution of their planetary atmospheres (Lin et al., 2014)!
If an Earth-mass unbound planet has any kind of vitality within its minimal gravitational sphere of influence, then it is logical to name the Earth-mass vessel a “Spaceship” as R.B. Fuller so long ago wished: it is, truly, a planet-vehicle! Civilized life-forms therein might direct its planet-vehicle inheritance for maximal advanced technical civilization longevity. Fantastically complex computer calculations apparently already indicate that our Solar System’s planets will continue to orbit the Sun for millions of years yet to come: for example, homely Mars may not be naturally ejected from our chaos-trending Solar System for, at least, 800+ million years. Two Sci-Fi novelists have published specifically on the topic of Earth as a future rogue planet, an independent unbound near-contemporary celestial body that fictionally endures an abrupt global climate regime transition after leaving the Sun’s vicinity! Stanley Schmidt (born 1944) published
(1978) and David Dvorkin (born 1943) published
(1988)— both Sci-Fi texts provide only bare sociological descriptions. Schmidt, however, does conjure friendly Alien-supplied propulsive engines used to move Earth away from an impending Milky Way Galaxy core-killing radiation hazard, whilst Dvorkin painted a detailed word-picture of the obvious results when unfriendly Aliens boldly steal our Sun with their star-trawler for some unrevealed reason, causing a global climate regime change calamity, no more sunrises ever again followed by the
chilling “death” of the suddenly non-energized Earth-bioshell. In both instances, civilized life-styles continue, but only after all humanity becomes a thoroughly socio-engineered selflessly-motivated social group actor lodged inside a Macro-Engineering-made motorized rogue Planet Earth. Earth in the form of a more or less bottled James E. Lovelock “Gaia” will be totally tamed, no longer a wilderness handful for humankind to cope with! An exception: some rather common bacteria can survive pressures equivalent to those found 50 kilometers beneath the solid surface upon which blissfully unaware humans walk!
Only two methods of conserving our Earth-world’s unique Anthropostrome have ever been seriously proposed: (I) armoring the sub-aerial planetary crust with a megastructure-styled big building (Cathcart and Cirkovic, 2006; Roy et al., 2014) constructed, in part, with varied kinds of Anthropic Rock or (II) burrowing deeper beneath our extant Anthropostrome, duplicating and ramifying its human life- support functions underground. Long-term occupancy and use of mined space has an extended history worldwide since energy conservation factor achieved through use of the insular qualities of rock ceilings and walls permits a variety of purposes, especially when floors allow unlimited equipment installations or storage weight (Dobraszczyk et al., 2016; Zerdoun, 2016). Excavation of sub-surface rooms and
corridors carries attributes of our extremely vulnerable 20
Century skyscrapers in an inverse direction. Very few Hollywood-filmed Sci-Fi movies have ever cast an actor/actress in any leading role clearly identified as a heroic “geologist” person:
The Monolith Monsters
Crack in the World
(2009) are, arguably, the best, so far issued theatrical examples. Assuming natural Earth-crust porosity of 3%, our lovely planet’s topmost five kilometers probably naturally contains 20,000,000 cubic kilometers of voids! Unlike large asteroids, planets cannot be hollowed
Islands in Space: The Challenge of the Planetoids
(1964) by Dandridge Cole and Donald W. Cox, provides little relevant guidance for our globe-scaled entrenchment macro-project plan. However, Team Geographos finds it comforting that Macro-Imagineering/Macro- Engineering has made significant strides in assessing the actual conditions of future global excavation of appropriate Earth-crust regions—certainly, the 29% that is landmass—by way of subway constructions: a global network of subway tunnels may become the rhizome of a new terriculous advanced technical nomadic civilization wholly housed within the Earth-crust and ocean that is a wandering or directed unbound planet Earth. Thus, there is demonstrated need for some rock-solid “deep thinking”, not merely Greenish “Deep Ecology” fantasy!
The area of Earth is 510,095,530 square kilometers. Sheltered beneath a remarkably shallow atmosphere, with a thermal resistance of
0.8 BTU, its relatively thin sub-aerial rocky crust behaves physically like an enclosing hard shell, constraining the planet’s shell-shaped mantle and ball-shaped core. [Under domestic U.S.A. law, landowner’s do not merely own a piece of our planetary homeland’s surface; they really claim solid-liquid conical entities, geometrical projections pointedly terminating at the Earth’s center of mass, possibly the center of its hypothesized nuclear fission J.M. Herndon Georeactor. The Federal Government of the conterminous U.S.A. owns 20,550,000,000 cubic kilometers of materials below daily apprehended solid surface’s various regionalized climate regime landscapes!] If a 1.27 centimeter-thick sheet of bubble-wrap, or something of equal insulation quality, was conformably overlain mechanically to physically isolate our planet’s landscape and ocean, then it would require at least twelve strata of such manufactured plastic material sheeting to attain our Macro- Imagineering air thermo-isolation goal. [Wind and precipitation cease, hence fewer natural hazard risks to contend with, below the barrier, from that expression of Nature. Groundwater contaminated will be
terminated that arises from natural and anthropogenic atmospheric dust fallout.] However, were a solitary exclusionary Molecular Nanotechnology-instigated comparably thick mass-stratum of non- threatening homogenous “gray goo” sheathing the entire Earth-surface were emplaced, then that artifact should have approximately the same volume as the aggregated porosity of five kilometers of Earth-crust—a second skin, so to speak! [Coiner of “grey goo”, Eric Drexler, has announced that he no longer fears a destructive scenario, that any fear is obsolete thinking (Phoenix and Drexler, 2004).] James E. Lovelock’s “Gaia” advocates suspect the Earth-bioshell is an intelligent organism, but “grey goo” would be provably intelligent, at least collectively we might call it a semi-sentient robot governed by Homo sapiens’ professional sociologists. Of course, benign “grey goo” never entered (the slightly incomplete) thermodynamic calculations of John Heaver Fremlin (1913-1995), his ultimate future human population home. Team Geographos recalculated his epidermal multi-story anthropogenic Earth enclosure and learned that 1,600 to 4,000 million millions of persons could live inside a roofed, fully-architected Earth-bioshell (Badescu and Cathcart, 2006)! Such a dreary domicile ought to be ideal for telexistence—an interactive technology that enables any person to have a real-time sensation of being at a place other than where the human actually exists or experiencing a real environment through virtual environment, as proposed by Susumu Tachi’s textbook
Geochemical Macro-Engineering may soon be practiced on a global geographical scale. Initially, it seems reasonable to expect that Molecular Nanotechnology will tailor its microscopic worker- machines—the first macroscopic worker-machine, protected by U.S.A. Patent 3,274,401 granted to Richard R. Landers on 20 September 1966 for his “Self-repairing and Self-sustaining System”—to devour contaminative garbage carelessly interred everywhere by messy people in mapped and unmapped landfills. Expressed differently, Homo
sapiens will clear and clean the Earth-surface
we wrap it or dig deeper into it, a very, very Green effort! (Globalized aerial pollution— the worst, of course, is human ailment-inducing city smog—already precedes “grey goo” predictions.) Besides the obvious effect of restoring the surface to a state similar to that of four or more billion years ago, or whenever the rains first fell from the sky, cleansing will prepare the surface for its human-selected albedo change. In addition, and rather attempting an imitation of God, Molecular Nanotechnology’s machines will bulldoze to smoothness the muck (or spoil heaps) and, thereby prevent sudden, uneven solid and liquid material redistributions via landslides caused by slope instability. Present-day Green recyclers label landfills as “human-emplaced ore bodies”. After our planet’s packaging, Homo sapiens may wish to further transmogrify “grey goo” in a “black goo” Earth covering for the purpose of efficient starlight absorption: an unbound Planet Earth, coated with “black goo” then becomes, in the terminology of Physics, a black-body object. Earth’s last façade might become as dark as vantablack, which is composed of vertically aligned nanotube arrays, the most black-color substance yet examined by vigilant technologized humans (Theocharous et al., 2014). This dark-color cloak ought to help our future human Dyson Sphere civilization avoid hostile Alien detection of our mobile Sun-rocket motored habitat-enclosure.
As our species descends into the Earth-crust, extending its single- society world Anthropostrome vertically, it will become necessary to carefully define our new and unusual geological surroundings, certainly a realm far beyond Plato’s famously instructive Parable of the Cave as observed by captives trapped therein! In fact, humanity’s War has often been the most important prompting for the exploitation of artificial subterranean cavities. Team Geographos foresees that peace maintenance will become the primary, and possibly only, sociological survival stimulus; widespread global subway system construction will be the chief symptom of human civilization’s change of heart and
willpower-made materials. Imagine two cooperative subway systems, one submarine—as, perhaps, drafted by Jan Friedmann’s mostly seawater covered “Aqua-Terra Planetary Transport System and Development Pneumatic and Electro-magnetic Underwater Tube-link Transportation System”, U.S.A. Patent 7,114,882, awarded 3 October 2006—and the second mostly landscape covered—possibly, Robert M. Salter’s high-speed “Planetran” macro-project plan (Salter, 1979). Realized, these subways, our world’s enlarged and extensive public mass-transit technology, along with the previous use of geothermal energy, have already been generally Green-approved if not vigorously promoted! Salter’s Earth-gravity moved trains, rushing through tunnels bored above the Moho layer, stopping every 300 kilometers or so because of tunnel depth limitations (pressure of rock and water above, geothermal heat from below) can form a network of transportation.
Of course, Team Geographos surmises, the tunnel floors are likely to become known to geoscientists as the Anthropocene geologic base—that is, if humans really are the railroad network’s builders (Szerszynski, 2012). In every sense the vertical urban factory—nay, Homo sapiens’ first global Gesamtkunstwerk—will absolutely exceed the capabilities and operability of any human populated interstellar Worldship so far outlined scientifically (Gilster, 2013). Theoretically, if a transparent solid barrier is inserted vertically into an aquarium, the resident curious fish will attempt to swim through the installed clear barrier but will eventually adapt to the smaller watery volume of their tank. If the barrier is surreptitiously removed subsequently, the incurious fish often remain “confined” as though the removed obstacle remained in place as when they first encountered it! Surely humans might adopt the same collective behavior as “confined” fish if they are not truthfully educated properly about their Anthropocene environment—all of it, not just those superstructure segments regarded highly by radical Greenists! Sci-Fi author B.D. Pedersen’s
(2016) plots an interesting storyline related to the developing
substructure segment, the sudden elevation of six new mountains on the conterminous U.S.A.’s landscape. Mountains that, on command, rapidly rise and may rapidly fall—perhaps depending on the forecasted orographic weather regime behavior as that affects specific and valuable human infrastructure—leads to the concept of a calliope landscape! Dr. Eduard Heindl, situated at Furtwangen University (Germany) holds U.S.A. Patent Application 2013/0174725 A1, issued 11 July 2013 for “System for Storing Potential Energy and Method for Producing Such a System”, an steel-tank hydraulic energy Gravity Storage system, that is to be emplaced in excavated rocky ground that meets B.D. Pedersen’s specifications as mountain material! [GOTO:
. Dr. Heindl has also proposed that star-lifting, star matter mining senso stricto, is a possible cause of the odd light- curve observed of KIC8462852 (Heindl, 2016).]
A Far-Future Bright Green Ecological-Survivalist Revolution?
Rogue Planet Earth is bound to be remarkably different from the Anthropostrome-saddled telluric planet with which we are familiar on a daily basis; its space environmental conditions necessarily will be far more extreme than even an Earth mass terrestrial-type planet moving through a repetitive extremely elliptical solar orbit encounters and endures. Moving between stars, the near or absolute absence of external energy normally provided by our Sun means geoscience’s landscape gradational event-processes (aqueous, aeolian, glacial) are absent, weather and exposed sub-aerial living organisms no longer present anywhere exposed to hard vacuum. [Some have named such possible organisms “extremophiles”, which is an anthropocentric term implying environmental conditions hostile to Homo sapiens and its microbial commensals!] Thereafter, only geological effects stimulated primarily by internally-sourced thermal energy will be effective in changing the almost isolated unbound Earth: volcanism, diastrophism, anamorphism, tectonic plate shifts, polar wanderings, metamorphism
and geomagnetic energy fluctuation. Still, its total heat, generated in a demarcated rest-frame, has a corresponding inertial mass. After the Sun becomes a far-distant pinpoint of weak light, our native planetary homeland could still easily support bacterial underground life; will it also be capable of housing and feeding a viable population of Homo sapiens still culturally cocooned by “civilization” of advanced technical means? Geologic evidence seems to clearly indicate that Earth’s bioshell, some 710 and 635 million years ago may have been completely encased by water ice—the Snowball Earth Theory (Comeau et al., 2016). Somehow life-forms extant millions of years before humans survived these long period of intense cold! Are we not more capable than simple Neoproterozoic era creatures?
Breathable air, our humanized world’s fundamental resource, deprived “instantaneously” of solar energy will condense, forming an inconsistently thick draped worldwide stratum, averaging about 10 meters thick, sitting atop both landscape and seawater. Earth’s atmosphere, by volume, consists of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and 1% various other gases; the first to freeze and rainout from our air is a predictable time sequence: water vapor, followed soon by carbon dioxide, then nitrogen and finally oxygen. The pressure—that is, one atmosphere—on Earth’s natural crust, or its unnatural Molecular Nanotechnology-built vantablack layer remains the same, but the Nature-given 10,329 kilograms per square meter is transformed into Anthropogenic frozen solids! Subsequently, the world-ocean commences to freeze from its surface to the seafloor, completing that phase transition in 500,000 years. Without fluid water the tectonic plate motions soon cease as soon as all previously entrained water was lost, and without wet subducted tectonic plates, there could be no active volcanism! This large geographical scale change in the mode of surface neo-tectonics is exactly opposite of that which occurs when our planet endures a strong atmospheric global warming—the runaway Greenhouse Effect, or Hothouse Earth scenario. All of this grainy—think
crumbly dry-ice texture—and sometimes slushy, but loosely-cohesive frozen gases can still be retained at the Equator because the gravitational force is greater there than the centrifugal force of the still- rotating Unbound Planet Earth. Since about 17% of Earth’s endo- genetic heat emerges after Nature’s production from the continental crust whilst 83% exits from the ocean’s bottom, the seafloor is thus an enticing place upon which to resettle!
Our Sun’s far-future Red Giant Stage will thermally sterilize the Earth-bioshell or, much sooner, a future Snowball Earth may develop naturally. A non-spacefaring Homo sapiens may have no choice other than to retreat underground! In either event-process, humans are probably going to be Nature-forced into a new “globalization” of a very distinctive kind! Will life for far-future humans be confined to an extinction refuge, Xanadu, equivalent to life in today’s open-air Cockaigne? Cockaigne, the non-Sci-Fi medieval landscape of fantastic plenty and luxury for all, is approximated by today’s real surface- situated technologized world [Anthropostrome] where, at least in the U.S.A., obesity is strongly correlated with poverty, and fitness with the ability to join clubby exercise social groups clad in cutesy monogramed workout duds. Will future living standards “in the underground” be “below” our current living standards, or, paradoxically, “above”? As our Anthropostrome descends inwards, our radiation doses will rise substantially—people will endure exposure that is probably less strong than creatures next to the Oklo reactors experienced, but certainly far stronger than today’s 310 millirem annual exposure of humans that is derived from background radiation (granite rock, radon gas): it is worth recalling that each adult person involuntarily emits 40 millirem per year of non-fatal or mutative radiation!
Freeman Dyson’s early-1960s Sun-enclosing sphere—actually a swarm of solar orbiting Space Stations built from materials resulting from the pulverization of all Solar System planets, moons and
asteroids—was intended to be inhabited by people living on the inside of his “Dyson Sphere”. Enormous volume spacecraft—misleadingly dubbed “Artificial Planets” (Glover, 2013)—could be the prototypes for swarming Dyson Sphere space stations. During AD 2013, R.B. Cathcart, Alexander Alexandrovich Bolonkin, Viorel Mihail Badescu and Dorin Stanciu announced their macro-project plan to bring asteroid-mined wealth to Earth’s surface via shaped metal delivery systems (Cathcart et. al, 2013). The next year, 2014, Larry Niven and M.J. Harrington revealed, in Sci-Fi format, their marvelous envisioning of non-biotic Nanotechnology miners directing an Earth-crossing asteroid towards our homeland planet in
The Goliath Stone
. Anyway, both sets of authors show that pulverization of asteroids, as well as other sources of rocky debris, can have some interesting consequences! However, Dr. Martin Beech, a Canadian astronomer, has since offered the feasible possibility of a “Solar Wrap”, which would give people and/or AI creatures in addition to their required paraphernal the opportunity to dwell on the outside of an artificial Sun container (Beech, 2010). Sci-Fi novelist Larry Niven in
Shipstar: A Science Fiction Novel
Bowl of Heaven
(2014) portrayed a combination of Freeman Dyson Sphere/Martin Beech Solar Wrap with the essential difference that the bowl-shaped spacecraft therein are Sun-powered rockets moving gigantic interstellar space-vehicles! When functioning, a single operating “Bowl” spacecraft might appear, from a distance, similar the exploding Blue Giant star GRB 130925A (Piro et al., 2014)!
It is known that direct conversion of solar energy to mechanical work is possible, but not at 100% efficiency (Momeni, 2016): earlier, Team Geographos used a similar energy transformation concept for its stellar engine propulsion macro-project!
But, the Team Geographos’ consensus is that if NOOM were determined to be insufficient for the needs and wants of sentient beings inhabiting our Solar System, our offspring or whatever, possibly the human/AI swarm joint-owners of a Sun-orbiting Dyson Sphere or Beech Solar Wrap, then
an idea bruited by Mark Hempsell (2005) for the construction of an purely artificial planet, by only mining the Sun’s ever-reducing ejected natural total mass, could become a workable human/AI survival prolongation partnership.
A bell-shaped sheath of hot gas encloses a spraying particle jet, both attached to a blue giant star, upper left-side corner. It can, thus, almost be mistaken for an operating Stellar Engine. Unquestionably, such a traveling machine’s operational energy signature may attract the unwelcomed notice of Aliens to our roving adventure. (Google Images.)
In fact, taking an ecosystems view of interstellar space travel and distant solar-system colonization, NOOM could become a very Bright Green Worldship, a technically viable vehicular alternative, developed at far less expensive—however that might be measured after AD 2017—for Rachel Armstrong’s [Editor]
Star Ark: A Living, Self- Sustaining Spaceship
(2017), a book that avoids “Anthropocene” concept by using slightly different concept of the “Ecocene” instead. Outclassing in physical size any rogue telluric planet (Abbot and Switzer, 2011), or the Moon revamped technically into NOOM, a colossal Galaxyship, far larger than any Worldship so far designed by daring Macro-Imagineers, powered by anti-matter/matter engines, has been proposed to house a human population of fifty billion persons on a trip from the Milky Way Galaxy to Andromeda Galaxy [M31] lasting five to ten million years (Burruss and Colwell, 1987)! “The most surprising cities in science fiction, whether sprawling, subterranean, planetary,
orbital, extra-terrestrial, or stretched across hundreds of entire solar systems, are not so distant from the ones—happy [well-provisioned] islands or [valleys] surrounded by insurmountable mountains—that are described in utopian texts” (Bellagamba, 2016, page 80). So, NOOM offers human-AI machine partners, willing or unwilling, safety from our own Sun’s Physics-forecast future Red Giant Stage-influences (Veras, 2016; Kervella et al., 2016), but also a low-cost colonizers platform!
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(2016) and Purposeful Astro-Engineering of Our Sun
Non-grotesque Aliens penetrate our Earth-bioshell’s atmosphere dramatically; then simply park their twelve egg-like spacecraft in varied landscapes distributed around our world’s geopolitically disorganized Earth-bioshell. Human-Alien communication is the crux of the movie’s intriguing storyline, which parallels somewhat our ongoing homegrown debate about the real purpose of Artificial Intelligence creation—that is, the configurational macro-problem of human-devised AI’s true sociological purpose. Sentient tools now, later becoming comforting, sociologically equal shared-fellowship creatures later? One upshot of the film’s laconic female linguist-protagonist’s dialogue is the eventual disclosure that the heptopodal [gracefully tentacled] Aliens think they will need Homo sapiens’ help some 3,000 years in our planet’s future Geologic Time! What might humans be doing in this part of the known Universe by, or before, AD 5016? Of course,
, set circa AD 2200, provided one Hollywood corporate movie-maker’s dramatic answer: a lone human’s decision to explode a planet, Altair-4, to create a new, entirely anthropogenic starry presence in the Milky Way Galaxy and without a name bestowed on the photogenic star!
is Sci-Fi scripted for the live movie-theater audience (and, subsequently, home big-screen television viewers) with a fastidious conformance to early-
Century scientifically-verified knowledge. Herein, Team
Geographos confines its examination to our Solar System only, and especially to our noble and valuable Sun. We hope to outline a self- consistent, plausible new explorative technique hence this chapter’s singular Sci-Fi presentation of compiled factual data and unusual Macro-Imagineering conclusions!
Our Sun’s formation, composition, and sources of energy are of profound relevance to Science’s truthful documentation of the Universe of which it is a starry component. The comparison of the Sun
with other identified Milky Way Galaxy Sun-like stars allows improvements in reasoned human understanding of both solar and stellar physics. One recent tabulation of solar twins alleges that HIP 076114 (HD 138573) “…is our best twin candidate; it looks exactly like the Sun in all these [defining] properties” (Mahdi et al., 2016). Our Sun is the only star in the entire known Universe for which humans can estimate an existential age using direct radioactive dating laboratory techniques and for which humans can closely measure its radius, mass and luminosity (DeForest et al., 2014). The Sun’s variable flux of photons, particles and plasma defines the dynamic environment to which our homeland planet Earth responds and adjusts [indeed, the Universe’s all-pervading space weather]. One especially interesting scientific expedition’s solar observations were compiled on 30 June 1973 when a pre-production version of a now retired civilian supersonic airliner, the Concorde-001, tracked the Moon’s shadow eastward for an aviation record-setting 74 minutes during a high-altitude jet-flight at 16,057 meters in the Earth-stratosphere, moving at Mach 2.03, above arid northern Africa (Mauritania to N’Djamena, Chad) (Lena, 2015). Foreseeing the Sun’s physical state within an Astrologic Time framework has also become a scientific quest since humanity’s Space
Age commenced and expanded during the mid- to late-20
Our Sun encompasses more than 99.8% of our Solar System’s mass and it serves Science as a model of normalcy relative to all other known Main Sequence stars. Just as Pluto, discovered during 1930 AD and re-designated as dwarf planet “134340 Pluto”, was demoted, rather controversially, from our Solar System’s roster of true planets by AD 2006—even though since we have learned it may have a liquid water ocean sloshing beneath its frozen solid surface of nitrogen ice— the known Universe and all its observed contents undergoes continual redefinition by human scientists, humane theologians and, possibly, other persons of unknown, possibly even of truly Alien persuasion (Davies, 2012)! Very bold calculations, made by career-risking
astrophysicists, have anticipated our Sun’s relentless future shift during coming Astrologic Time from its current spectral class [G2 V] to the Red Giant branch of the admirably still useful Hertzsprung-Russel Diagram. Considerable scientific uncertainty still remains about this solar change theory, especially that phase which deals with Earth’s long-term existence or non-existence as an intact, but uninhabited, celestial object. Evidently, all the terrestrial-type planets of our Solar System will undergo either vaporization or extreme heating in the far-future. So there, Fate-questioning humans!
The terminology “Hard Sci-Fi” first came into use about a month
humanity’s Space Age started, probably neologized by the Sci-Fi short-story writer and frequent book-reviewer for
Peter Schuyler Miller (1912-1974) (Vaingurt,, 2011). Space Age Science has directly measured the solar constant, the solar wind, and is now developing a comprehensive theory of “Space Weather”—that is, the conditions of the Sun and the solar wind, Earth’s protective magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of operational space satellites and probes as well as civilization’s ground-based [e.g., Earth, Moon and Mars] technological systems and endanger human life or health [e.g., aerospace-plane passengers and crew as well as interplanetary spationauts]. Geoscientists have tried to tie their obscurest findings to Sci-Fi: for instance, to increase their public visibility; UK mineralogist Dr. Chris Stanley first described a whitish new mineral specimen discovered in Serbia, Jadarite (Whitfield et al., 2007), as being, in its chemical formula, like the fabled green-colored large-crystal, fatal-to-exposed- Superman “kryptonite” rock featured in
By the mid-19
Century, the widely strung hard-wired telegraph system was the first human networked technology adversely affected by Earth’s surrounding Solar System environment—space weather (Reiman, 2009; Lakhina and Tsurutani, 2016). More seriously, however,
outer space weather-caused worldwide disruptions of military radars and radio communications on 23 May 1967, stimulated by severe Sun activity, nearly fomented outbreak of an World War III because of the global technical breakdowns of vital military infrastructures (Knipp et al., 2016)! During the period 1958 to 1962, high-altitude nuclear weapon explosion tests revealed the devastation of both Earthly and outer space infrastructures that can be caused by the issuing electromagnetic pulse. In other words, planned anthropogenic space weather is a feasible transformational option, whatever its creation
purpose. It is an option humans must adopt since the 21
fast-developing Internet of Things cannot be allowed, ever, to be even momentarily disabled (Barnaghi and Sheth, 2016)!
Our Sun’s heliosphere is an ideal astrophysical laboratory. To date, the human-contrived Helios space probe approached the Sun to about 0.29 Astronomical Units on 17 April 1976. On the analogy with Earthly seismology, the goal of helioseismology is to correctly infer the internal properties of our Sun and to understand the physical mechanisms which govern the behavior of our central star. Natural solid celestial objects, such as comet Lovejoy in 2011 AD, have been recorded colliding with the Sun’s corona which extends out about 12 to 15 solar radii: the first positive evidence of such a collision was the observed cometary nucleus impact of 30-31 August 1979 when 1979 XI Howard-Koomen-Michels entered the Sun’s photosphere at one solar radius. As the comet nucleus approached perihelion it commenced to evaporate and its motion through rarefied gas below the solar photosphere formed a shock-wave of ionized gas, “smoke” trail. A little time later, a high-temperature cloud surrounded the infalling comet’s nucleus, followed by a hot luminous plume’s ejection by the Sun when aerodynamic loading of the comet nucleus ultimately caused its disintegration. The ejected debris plume then interacted with the Sun’s magnetic field (Brown et al., 2015) A larger mass Sun impactor, it may be speculated, could trigger a coronal mass ejection (at worst, arriving
later at the Earth, as in the AD 1859 Carrington Event process) that could, as space weather, affect our Earth-bioshell infrastructure cohesion very significantly (exposed and unprotected electricity transmission wires, steel pipelines, unshielded electronics). If a comet massive enough—say, approximately one million tonnes—were directed to crash into the Sun, it might very well cause, after penetrating 700 kilometers into the Sun’s dense lower atmosphere, a magnetic flare or coronal mass ejection event-process (Brown et al., 2015)! An anthropogenic space probe, Voyager I, was launched 5 September 1977: after passing through our Sun’s heliopause during 2012, by AD 2016 that uninhabited interstellar probe exceeded 137 Astronomical Units [+20 billion kilometers] distance from that marvelous Earth life-sustaining natural fusion reactor.
Laser Operation and Characteristics
Sci-Fi writers—writing pulpy invasive monsters from “beyond space and time” stories—as well as macro-imaginative professional scientists know, with certainty, that outer space in our known Universe is never empty. Some scientists allege further that some forms of Earthly life may survive for indefinite periods in the hard vacuum and radiation bath that is universal outer space! During 2007 AD, a biological experimental payload, carefully lodged aboard the European Space Agency’s FOTON-M3 probe demonstrated that tardigrades survived the mission’s ultra-harsh physical environment: “These results add the first animal to the exclusive and short list of organisms that have survived such exposure” (Jonsson et al., 2008, page R729). Indeed, this specific test result is promising in terms of future professional Astrobiology unfolding in an academic setting populated by nascent terraformers. Stated otherwise, interplanetary and interstellar space may even have a “carrying capacity” for many kinds of sturdy life- forms; more trenchantly, people or evil Aliens operating in space may, therefore, leave “ecological footprints”! Nevertheless, the vacuum of
outer space is the ideal environment for propagating electromagnetic radiation since virtually all frequencies propagate with essentially the same low attenuation.
Envisioned and dubbed “laser” by R. Gordon Gould (1920-2005) in AD 1959, the light laser is a device that converts mixed frequency radiation into a discrete frequency of highly enhanced and coherent visible radiation; thus, a recoilless light laser is a source of collimated optical radiation—stimulated emission of light that is nearly monochromatic—that has practicably exploitable characteristics. Those astronomers especially interested in discovering Aliens have watched the sky with various high-technology electronic laser-light detecting contraptions, hoping to observe and record telling Alien-instigated optical laser emissions (Tellis and Marcy, 2015). The coherence of the laser light-beam permits the beam to propagate long distances with little dispersion and to be focused on a small region of the Sun. The human made and projected laser emissions travel at the speed of light—light travels one kilometer in 3.3 microseconds, around the Earth’s equator in 0.13 seconds and from the Earth to our Sun, one Astronomical Unit, in 8.3 minutes—and can be either continuous (“continuous wave”, CW) or pulsed. At the behest of its macro-engineer wielders, such a laser light beam-caster could be directed, and its emission energy delicately adjusted, to fit the operational needs of a human Astro-Engineering specialized team! Although a laser beam has zero mass, when it impinges on the gaseous solar target the intruding light beam must be absorbed to cause an observable effect on our Sun.
After mirrored laser-beam ranging reflectors were first installed on the Moon in 1969 AD, laser beams have been returned from our planet’s only major natural satellite to measure its exact orbital distance during various times of its revolution about Earth. Some technologists foresee a solar-powered lunar power grid might be installed by AD 2050. Therefore, a super-powerful laser should be built
there in order to probe the Sun. Our star is a non-solid object, mostly hydrogen. As of late-2016 AD, the greatest publicly-known power density of a pulsed laser, the Osaka University [Japan] LFEX machine, on a spot target reportedly is more than 2,000 trillion Watts in the duration of one trillionth of a second—corresponding, roughly, to one thousand times the integrated electric power consumption of today’s ceno-Anthropocenic world! LFEX light pressure, the focused light pressure of the target-impinging collimated beam, easily exceeds 30 Petapascals, or about 300,000,000,000 times Earth’s sea-level air pressure! Earth-bound attempts for more than sixty years to cause a long-lasting nuclear fusion mean, in real-world practical terms, that plasma physicists are trying to duplicate conditions present in our Sun. A laser beam traveling one Astronomical Unit toward the Sun will become significantly affected by that massive celestial object’s gravity, resulting in light bending, as well as its emissions (solar wind, flares and coronal mass ejections, magnetic currents).
Two Noteworthy Astro-Engineering Thinkers
Asteroid 12343 (1993 DT1), “martinbeech”, and Asteroid 9631 (1993 SL6), “hubertreeves”, a so named to honor two scientific thinkers whose ongoing research is most relevant to Chapter Five’s topic. Hubert Reeves, in Chapter 11 of
Atoms of Silence: An Exploration of Cosmic Evolution
(1984), at pages 122-124, speculated on two macro- projects intend to revive a dying Sun, one that is headed to a future Red Giant Stage, which he illustrated in his book’s Figure 40. “Recall that the Sun obtains its energy by burning hydrogen into helium. The nuclear reactions responsible for this fusion take place where temperature is highest, at the center of the Sun. [
Author’s Note: This spherical fusion nuclear process may possibly extend to somewhere between 0.29% and 0.46% of our Sun’s assumed radius.]
About 50 percent of this central hydrogen has already been transformed in this hot region. This is, in a sense, a malfunction in the machinery of the Sun. A ‘pump’ is
needed to circulate the fuel and to help rid the central furnace of ashes of the fusion process. We could in this way prolong the life of the Sun from 10 billion years to about 100 billion years! For this [mega-]project we must ‘stir’ the material of the Sun periodically, much as one stirs a cup of coffee to mix the sugar and the liquid, or, even better, as one revives a campfire by pushing wood from the periphery into the hot coals at the center. To do this we must create a hot spot between the center and the surface, a little outside the fusion zone. I can see two possibilities. The first is to detonate super hydrogen bombs. With today’s nuclear bombs we have already created temperatures much higher than those in the Sun’s heart. Here RBC is out of fresh ideas; but, after all, we may have plenty of time to think about it. The second possibility is to aim a powerful, extremely concentrated laser beam at the solar surface. Here again, though, we must face the problem of assuring that the energy is not dissipated too soon.”
Dr. Hubert Reeves’ first Macro-Engineering option, bombardment by an enormous yield thermonuclear bomb, is here labeled by Team Geographos as “Plummet Stirrer” and his second technological option—collimated laser-beam deep drilling penetrating the Sun’s gas and plasma—is light-heartedly named “Swizzle-stick Stoker”. Since the Sun’s sidereal rotation is about 27 days at its equator, both Astro- Engineering macro-projects have the advantage of offering schedulable direct mixing of all materials exterior to the Sun’s core and within or below the Sun’s apparent photosphere. The subsurface shear layer, separating the fastest rotating interior stratum and the observed surface layer, occurs at, approximately, 0.95 radii in the Sun’s overall core-to-surface rotation profile.
As of late-2016 AD, Dr. Martin Beech is the only person who has examined Hubert Reeves’ suggestion at length in an appropriate book:
Rejuvenating the Sun and Avoiding Other Global Catastrophes
(2008). Both astronomers hope to make intelligent life-forms immune, for a
lengthy period of Astrologic Time, to universal stellar evolution via an Astro-Engineering process of super-core star homogenization! The luminosity of our Sun, about 3.83 X 10
Ergs per second, implies a loss of mass from that star, caused by its inherent ongoing fusion cycle, of more than 2,000,000,000 kilograms per second radiated in every direction, helping to light, by its naturally fading presence, our almost incomprehensibly vast “known” Universe. Over the Sun’s multi-billion year presence as a celestial body, its convective uppermost 5% has slowed, in comparison to its interior, owing to Poynting-Robertson
Effect—that is, its surface rotation has slowed because of drag induced by the constant ejection of photons since the Sun’s ignition as a star. Any gradual rotational slowing, of course, affects the Sun’s magnetism, the basis of our Solar System’s space weather.
Plummet Stirrer: Option One
Along with cosmic dust, comets and other cosmic crud, asteroids naturally plunge into the Sun. Records of observations of pieces of Comet P/Shoemaker-Levy-9 as they fell gravitationally into Jupiter from 16-22 July 1994 AD, generating telescopically visible gas plumes, presented Team Geographos with a few clues as to how the Sun’s photosphere might behave if humans deliberately direct a big asteroid to crash into the Sun. Asteroids threats to Earthlings are a major 21
Century fixation since modern-day Homo sapiens, especially since the 15 February 2013 Chelyabinsk incident, has not experienced the ground
impact of an asteroid-class celestial body with the Earth-bioshell. [All known nuclear weapons extant would be incapable, in terms of aggregated explosive yield, of shattering a rocky celestial object larger in diameter than 20 kilometers! Still, plans have been drawn to dispose of asteroids with diameters of 100 meters or more using a single nuclear device with an energy yield of 4.18 X 10
Joules, about one
mega-tonne TNT equivalent (Aleksandrova et al., 2016).] Eventually, after we learn how to cope with this newfound global cosmic threat to
human civilization’s long-term continuance, asteroids may become a resource in the sense that they can become useful in the manner Hubert Reeves and Martin Beech anticipate. Interestingly, astronomer Lena Okajima offers the idea, currently in the academic study stage, for an artificial meteor shower to take place during the usually gaudy opening ceremonies for the 24 July to 9 August 2020 AD Summer Olympics scheduled sporting competition in Tokyo, Japan: a 50 kilogram cubical satellite placed in a low-Earth Sun-synchronous orbit, will dispense 300-500 ball-bearing sized pellets each second over Tokyo
41’ North latitude by 139
41’ East longitude) which produce varied
color bursts that will have an apparent magnitude of -0.86, slightly fainter than the brightest star in the sky, Sirius, at magnitude -1.5. The cost of each pellet is estimated as 2016 USD$16,000. Is this a case of Popular Art trivializing Science’s Armageddon-inducing space debris impact predictions?
Whilst spacefaring ecosystem-nations have already unwarily littered outer space with in excess of a metric tonne of uncontrolled radioactive materials, some few ambitious scientists, such as Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa (1894-1984), during AD 1959, have proposed that surplus weapons-grade plutonium and other highly concentrated radioactive wastes might be placed in Earth orbit and then, subsequently, accelerated by chemical rocket to counter Earth’s orbital velocity, so that the radioactive waste disposal containers ultimately fall gravitationally into our Sun. Certainly, although theoretically possible, such a packaged radioactive waste disposal technique would require much R&D and would likely involve extreme economic costs since the thrown-away waste container destined for the Sun must be very robust so that no rocket launch from accident or terrorist act imaginable could result in the release of plutonium and other kinds of noxious wastes into the Earth-bioshell. However, to do the task successfully means that the strongly-wrapped waste must be accelerated to about 30 kilometers per second in a direction opposite
to Earth’s orbital motion in the Solar System. If Nature does not provide humanity with a convenient test solid space debris object soon, macro- engineers can test the efficacy of either or both Macro-Engineering options authored by Reeves and Beech, because humans have available a conveniently nearby, industrially useful 20 meter-diameter Asteroid 2003 YN
, “…the first object known to currently be a quasi-satellite of the Earth” (Connors et al., 2004, page 1251). [The smallest and closest known Earth quasi-satellite is Asteroid (469219) 2016 HO
.] Helio- seismic data taken before, during and after an artificial “plasma splashdown” of a redirected test object will help to constrain our post- test Sun reaction theory since such measurements give alert astronomers the opportunity to image the Sun’s interior. In addition, of course, Aliens might see our nuclear waste disposal as convincing evidence of an intelligent life-form’s civilization (Whitmire, and Wright, 1980), which is potentially not a good-for-us inadvertent cosmic signal!
Hard Sci-Fi writer Glen David Brin’s first popular novel
(1980) featured courageous Homo sapiens specimens, circa AD 2300, undertaking “Expedition Sundiver”, a manned spaceship’s adventurous trip through the solar chromosphere. Early-21
Century astronomers look forward to the AD 2018 launch of an actual spacecraft, the Solar Probe Plus, that is to be used to explore the region beyond Earth to as close as 9.86 solar radii—that is, about 0.044 Astronomical Units— distant from our Sun. In other words, Solar Probe Plus will start its measurements near the termination of Solar Cycle 24 and its work near
the predicted maximum of Solar Cycle 25. As currently configured, the future comet-like Sun-grazing Solar Probe Plus is conically shaped— rather resembling the ablative nuclear warhead nosecone of an ICBM that protectively enshrouds delicate electronics—to shade the reporting robotic projectile’s internal electronics and, also, to make a wake-shield extending behind Solar Probe Plus that is relatively free of damaging high-energy particles.
Artistic conception of AD 2018 Solar Probe Plus technical configuration. (Google Images.)
[A futuristic probe casing, made from hafnium, nitrogen and carbon (HfN
), is a promising working satellite shield capable of withstanding about 60% of the Sun’s surface temperature, about 4,127
Celsius (Qi-Jun and de Walle, 2015. Refractory ceramics—Anthropic Rock—in the form of a tantalum carbide and hafnium carbide mix also resist temperatures near 4000
C (Cedillos-Barraza et al., 2016).] As the machine enters the Sun’s low solar corona it must be capable of withstanding the sustained temperature of several thousand degrees Celsius, rapid alterations in the ambient magnetic field, induced electrical currents, and secondary electron showers generated by charged particles striking the machine’s electric components! Surfaces of the Solar Probe Plus spacecraft constantly exposed to the Sun’s
emissions will experience about 475 Suns (647 kW square meter), or 475 times the solar irradiance experienced at Earth (1366 W square meter) (Fox et al., page 31). Approximately 99.5% of the Sun’s light emerges from the top of its photosphere.
Swizzle-Stick Stoker: Option Two
Social party givers and partakers know a swizzle-stick is a short glass rod that is used for stirring festive mixed alcoholic beverages. Although these manual drink mixer rods were known in ancient Roman times, they became particularly popular in European noosystems during the 19
Century, when they were used to remove bubbles from champagne! [Hey, we’re more enlightened these days in some matters of taste!] Intense, focused lasers can be utilized to study thermodynamic properties of star-replicating plasmas. But there are
awesome mega-gravity, magnetic, and material/energy flows emanating from the Sun that could readily distort a laser beam aimed at it. In terms of authentic Astro-Engineering, what has been missing until fairly recently is any ability of astronomers and macro-engineers to regularly test thermodynamic theories and actual prospective spacecraft equipment in any immersive plasma laboratory experiment where the initial and final states are characterized fully and completely documented in useful detail.
As temperatures increase, chemical bonds loosen until finally the nuclei bobble in a sea of erratically “dancing” electrons—plasma, a gas that conducts electricity. A living human’s normal body temperature is 37
Celsius. Startech Environmental Corporation (founded 1993) in the City of Wilton, State of Connecticut, U.S.A., before its AD 2011 bankruptcy, commercially manufactured the Startech Plasma Converter System (SPCS), which was capable of reaching a sustained maximum temperature of 1689727
Celsius. That company’s plasma pyrolysis furnace, nicknamed “The Destroyatron” in a 3 May 2004 informational article penned by
correspondent Stuart F. Brown, can, quite literally, dissociate anything put into its electricity-heated central cavity wherein, on command, an SPCS causes Sun photosphere- like conditions safely contained within its well-insulated stable structure housed inside an ordinary industrial warehouse type building.
The SPCS’s breakthrough technology for economical plasma gasification can simultaneously dispose of anything and create a non-pollution energy resource, all done without combustion! Filtered off-gases can be harvested for other commercial industrial uses. “The Destroyatron”, or similar plasma-generating and holding vessels made by others, may be the ideal industrial facility within the Earth-bioshell for rigorous testing of post-Solar Probe Plus machine heat-shields and hardened broadcasting components, as well as real-world plasma penetration characteristics of laser beams of various frequencies and energies.
If all the equipment feasibility and operability testing is satisfactorily concluded within the Earth-bioshell, then humans can expect all further efforts for these Sun-stroking macro-projects will be moved to the Moon, where Headquarters can be simultaneously established for Option One and Option Two that will eventuate in a prodigious stirring and rousing of our aging mid-life Sun. A global network of radio telescopes, the Event Horizon Telescope, is being put together so that even a center-of-the-Milky Way Galaxy Black Hole’s event-horizon will soon become viewable to ground-based Earth observers. It is possible that lasers developed to stir the Sun could be harnessed to polish solid objects randomly frequenting the Asteroid Belt, and later possibly even the Kuiper Belt’s objects, in order to form a postulated Asteroid Belt Astronomical Telescope capable of imaging exoplanets to 10 meter resolution (Austin, 2016)! Polished natural asteroids, honed to one-sided mirror finishes, can be construed as marmoreal—that is, light-reflecting like smoothed and shiny marble flooring and walls in Euro-Classical styled buildings and structures.
Riding a Cosmic Carousel
Circa 1918, Harlow Shapley (1885-1972) became the first human astronomer to accurately estimate the size and position of our Milky Way Galaxy. Thirty years later, in 1948, Fritz Zwicky (1898-1974) proposed a Macro-Engineering-style total reconstruction and broad-
scale reconfiguration of our Solar System by changing the orbits of its planets and other Sun satellites. This Solar System offers humanity about 1.7 X 10
square kilometers of solid surface, with Earth alone representing almost 33% of those solid surfaces available to future human spationaut “joggers”! Interestingly, geoscientists have “pattern painted” certain features of our Earth’s terrestrial landscape, namely flowing river gorges, to easily and cheaply assess the speed of natural erosive event-processes (Beer et al., 2016). All told, the variously shaped solid satellites of our wonderful life-favoring Solar System
represent just about 0.000000000000003% of the spherical volume occupied by the Solar System that is influenced by our Sun’s gravisphere. During the Sun’s lifetime, that star has consumed a mass of materials approximating the current Earth’s mass. Continual loss of solar mass is consequential for Homo sapiens: (I) the orbits of the planets, moons, comets and asteroids will continue to shift outwards from the Sun, changing their currently defined periods of motion; (II) the Astronomical Unit—the space from the Sun to the orbiting Earth— definition will shorten causing consternation amongst number- conscious astronomers; and (III) the measured periods of the revolving planets [such as Earth and Mars] will increase with Astrologic Time’s elapse.
However, there is a sunnier side to this seemingly bleak Macro- Imagineering imagery—namely, Mark Hempsell’s artificial planet construction macro-project plan harvesting naturally ejected solar gases (Hempsell, 2005)! Only the total mass of our Sun limits such a macro-project hereabouts—that is, until humans can latch onto another star. To vividly demonstrated the bogusness of extra-terrestrial property claims, on 28
April 2001, Dr. Virgiliu Pop (born 1974) registered by Facsimile #0044-79-80063585 with the Archimedes
Institute Claim Office his sole ownership of our Sun, “…including every elementary particle…” whilst, simultaneously denying any and all liability for any damage caused by his primary star property such as
human skin cancer, sunstroke, solar flares et cetera. Very relevantly, Clement Vidal asserts that “…some existing binary stars might actually be extra-terrestrial intelligence…hypothetical beings feed[ing] actively on stars…[named] stellivors” (Vidal, 2016). Star mining by an Alien civilization may be the real cause of the peculiar dimming/brightening cycle the star KIC 8462852 in the constellation Cygnus, or maybe not (Bodman and Quillen, 2016). And, do not overlook the ridiculous “Starkiller Base” built by the First Order in
Star Wars: The Force Awakens
(2015)! Who are you gonna call for effective legal protection, Stellivor Busters?
Yucky Facades: Defensive Sci-Fi Strategy Evading Aggressively Expanding Mean Alien Civilization-Imposed Doomsday
One of Hollywood’s contributions to futuristic Alien-Homo sapiens meetings was
(1997), which essentially offered only good vibes, bland dialogue, and picturesque Computer Generated Images background scenery. Real-world bio-astronomers have, during the 21
Century, consistently speculated there may be hundreds, or even possibly millions, of technologically advanced Alien civilizations in “our”
Milky Way Galaxy; so, of course, do Sci-Fi story-tellers, whether in pulp magazines, radio and television dramas, or big-screen epic films. However, some of those postulated Aliens may be inveterate interstellar predators (Cockell and Lee, 2002; Kent, 2011). A possible movie sequel for
(2016), last year’s theater box-office Sci-Fi genre financial winner, can be Team Geographos speculated: reveal some exciting/interesting reason for exactly what those tentacled critters expect humans to do for them three millennia hence? Drs. Charles S. Cockell and Marco Lee offered Homo sapiens the first published generalized “Alien Threat Assessment” document. [Here it is appropriate to remind our readers that “war” derives from the Indo- European root “wer”, meaning “to confuse”.]
Because people need warning of incoming asteroids and because radar astronomy is used to explore our Solar System, our civilization has emitted electromagnetic energies that could furnish prey-ingesting Aliens clues as to our technology infrastructure’s state of development. Hence, Ivan Almar and H. Paul Shuch (2007) proposed the San Marino Scale, a metric for ecosystem-nations and respected world authorities to judge the risks of announcing via deliberate broadcasts of our living presence to living Aliens. Earthling’s observational and broadcasting obsessions ought not to undergird future Alien possession of our homeland—preening before ravenous Aliens ultimately is self-effacing!
During February 1938, the BBC television broadcast the first Sci-Fi show ever produced for television—it was a 35 minute-long excerpt from Karel Capek’s play
(Dourish and Bell, 2014, page 770)! Not yet legally implemented, the San Marino Scale was not an available or applicable international governance tool that could be imposed to halt the Homo sapiens-revealing 15 June 2008 transmission of a 30-second MPEG compressed format video,
, sponsored by the Doritos Broadcast Project—Doritos are cheese-flavored tortilla chips—and transmitted by powerful broadcasting equipment, the European Incoherent Scatter Radar, co-located with the Svalbard Global Seed Vault (extant since 2008) Norway. The target star, 47 Ursae Majoris, a near twin of our Sun situated about 46 light-years distant in the constellation Ursa Major, was chosen as a target because it could be the center of another solar system (Zaitsev, 2012). Macro-Imagine this: ignoring the dangers of self-advertisement,
made a humanitarian appeal to any Alien, gastronomically! There are, no doubt, possible dangers of Homo sapiens’ self-advertisement.
, a Google Image, Doritos product ingredients warning label for………….voracious Aliens!!!!
The popular news-media accounts of this episode in commercial advertising’s mostly dreadful history coaxed Team Geographos to wonder if Alien civilizations ever intentionally radiate “white elephant” instructions sent to cause costly ecological-sociological chaos amongst other civilizations. In its figurative, “white elephant” is some kind of valuable (or seemingly valuable) possession whose maintenance requires great expense that really outweighs the value or usefulness of the possession to its final recipients! Naturally, we deny that any Earth- originating unmanned living, self-sustaining spaceship-secured garden (Oksiuta, 2007; Yachie et al., 2007), or non-functional space probe (Holmes, 1991), could ever truly qualify as a “white elephant” gift or as famished Alien-leading bread-crumbs!
Amongst Sci-Fi publications, Arthur Charles Clarke (1917-2008) presented a possible “white elephant” exemplar in
Rendezvous with Rama
(1973). Like beautifully hand-crafted nested Russian dolls [matryoshka], there really was nothing especially useful inside that fictional depopulated interstellar Worldship (Morris, 2011; Ashkenazi, 2017). [Literally, the biggest generation, or extant Worldship, Team Geographos is familiar with in Sci-Fi and Science is our Earth-bioshell: that life-cradling bluish marbled appearance terrestrial-type planet is unique in this Solar System.] But the externally neat, majestically
moving, extra-terrestrial package of technology was attractive to Clarke’s fictional characters and focused the attention of readers, who tended to interact with the novel emotionally as well as intellectually.
Why would Aliens send “white elephants” away from their civilization to any place else? There are two partially satisfactory answers. First is that the spacecraft-packages are Alien test-vehicles, sent to known inferior
, to provoke or elicit some indications of the extra-Alien’s civilizational technological status and state of preparedness. This test-vehicle probing technique is designed to indicate the curiosity, apprehension, and emotional content of the inferior civilization’s reply. The second answer is that it is a clever means for the Alien to frustrate potential competitors or rivals, since those receiving a “white elephant” are then fruitlessly kept busy for a long period of time laboriously unwrapping the gift, because no rational military leader anywhere would ever care to risk any form of intelligible reply to Aliens without perfect professional intelligence assessment reports about the Alien “white elephant” sender’s warfare capabilities. Besides, scientific boredom is a real drag—U.S.A. slang for randomized, unproductive mental inactivity that bores satiated humans—for the most intellectually active thinkers living on the target planet or its solar system! Essentially, the second answer amounts to busywork for Homo sapiens toddlers or even aged adult crybabies who simply must, compulsively, trial all new received technologies (Vakoch, 2011)! Such vain agency has pervaded our history, as shown by 1,193 pages of text in William L. Thomas’s monumental
Man’s Role in Changing the Face of the Earth
Hunker-Bunker Planet: Radical Green Troglodyte Cul-de-sac?
Could marauding, hungry Alien predators elicit a radical Green Earth-leader’s resolve, and firm follow-up direction and supervision, for an inspired world-public’s winning opposition to Alien ravishment for Alien sustenance? [Fully aware that Bioengineered stock animals have
been proposed to “fit” the predicted post-2100 AD human world’s bioshell, it is possible feeding Aliens might prefer to improve our edibility by Bio-engineering techniques!] By their nature, simpletons of the radical Green persuasion often sadly exhibit recognizably insincere pacifistic proclivities resembling Dr. Strangelove’s anti-radioactive fallout pre-thermonuclear war mine-shaft digging macro-project. Team Geographos, voting to a man, would defend the existential rights of Altaira Morbius, deliciously…er, uh…delightfully played by actress Anne Francis (1930-2011) in
, over those of any captured specimen of a nasty, slurping Alien phagotrophic aggressor! And, we are vigilantly “Watching the Sky”!
So, Team Geographos, a group of mature gentlemen who are decidedly not reality-detached radical Greens, now examines the tactical possibility of humanity gaining advantage over high-technology interstellar space-roving Alien predators, that are vulnerable to starvation, via timely and subtle counter-attack employing a globalized “Cannot Have Alien Obtrusion Scheme-Camouflage Action Program” (CHAOS-CAP), a chimerical cozening curiosity Homo sapiens concealment macro-project undertaken to ensure Homo sapiens outlasts predatory Aliens. CHAOS-CAP is asymmetric warfare (Taylor and Boan, 2011)—one might even call it a “negative-brandscape”! [The only previously professional literature-reported negative brandscaping macro-projects that can be directly attributed to forming Team Geographos’ current published opinions on this important matter are “Buffalo Commons”, reported by Frank J. Popper and Deborah Epstein Popper in the B3 Section of
The Washington Post
on 6 August 1989 and “A Solution for the Problems of Traffic, Pollution, Drug Abuse, Crime and Poverty in the Middle Atlantic and Northeastern States: The International Parkade” devised by Dr. Stephen W. Ragan and Barbara
M. Ragan, both the at Minot State University, Minot, State of North Dakota, in a circulated preprint dated 14 November 1989, which proposed transforming the State of New Jersey into a parking lot and
airport.] CHAOS-CAP, paradoxically, must be an effective waste- wilderness camouflage scheme that is Alien observable, a repellant result so contaminated and threatening as to be almost automatically classed by any prowling, hungry Alien invader as a barren, pristine and unpalatable telluric planet—floccipend—obviously with no potential capacity for future Alien food-culturing or acquisition, neither a well- stocked larder nor useful domesticated or conquered animal feedlot!
. Camouflage is an abstruse title for a military technology. Ships afloat on the ocean are the most difficult to camouflage whilst vehicles in sandy deserts are most easily hidden from the human-eye observation; camouflage necessitates a profound human understanding of our Earth-bioshell.
A video-tape frame, taken from “To Serve Man”,
The Twilight Zone
Episode 89, broadcast 2 March 1962, showing captured human protagonist, aboard a prison-spacecraft, being coaxed to eat by a solicitous Kanamit crew-person, whilst in transport to the attending
Alien’s homeland…as pre-fattened human livestock! The fooled human, potentially a troublesome commodity for the Kanamits, can be thought of as like un-slaughtered Kobe beef ranch animals! (Google Image.)
Our human civilization’s inalienable survival Macro-Engineering program would have to be a twofold demulcent anti-Alien chameleonic deception campaign, including carefully contrived—thoroughly Hollywood-style Sci-Fi scripting ploys—of centrally coordinated all- Earth multiple-source tele-communications broadcast deceptions and geographically large-scale staged closely visible masquerade “final proof” of Earth’s ineligibility as a desirable potential Alien food resource and, worse for finicky Aliens, a possible hotspot of back-contamination to their Worldship(s) if a successful landing is made by the supercilious Aliens, or their controlled macroscopic and microscopic exploration mechanisms (avatars). On an enormous geophysical scale, Earth’s celestial body can be camouflaged to be repugnant, almost repellently animatronic without being actually Animatronic, to any invading Aliens, thereby nullifying any Alien prey-hunting strategy based on chemotaxis (Forbes, 2009). Team Geographos reminds its readers that Earth’s surface, when seen from a great distance, has previously undergone profound color changes as it has gradually aged throughout more than four billion years of Earth-planetocentric Geologic Time: from a pale “orange dot” during the Archean (3.8 to 2.5 billion years ago) to our
Century’s marbled, somewhat smoggy “blue dot” (Lin et al., 2014).
In future we might choose Earth’s coloration—by induced by Molecular Nanotechnology machines it to match a “black dot” landscape! Taking into account Earth’s curvature caused, of course, by our planet’s sphericity, it may be possible to assume a negative-brandscape that is flatter than the State of Kansas (Dobson and Campbell, 2014; Bonner and Morgenstern, 2016).
CHAOS-CAP might be presumed to be a future off-shoot of human civilization’s so far sporadic and disjointed current climate Geo-
Engineering studies and experiments, as well as humanity’s “hibernating infrastructure”—Bjorn Wallsten’s “urks world” insight! Self-replication technology possibly modeled on living organisms, are already subject to U.S.A. Patent Law (Ellery, 2016). In Sci-Fi precincts, one of the most iconic self-replicators was the mystical rectangular non-reflective, yet visually shiny, black slabs [whereas, clearly, in this specific context “monoliths” implies, incorrectly, “single standing stones”] famously used in the trend-setting
2001: A Space Odyssey
(1968). Self-replicating machines, whether large in size or invisibly tiny, offers Geo-Engineering solutions in the short term and Moon solar- power generation. Team Geographos imagines the totally urbanized Sci-Fi planet “Coruscant”,
Star Wars: Episode I—The Phantom Menace
(1999) converted to an intentionally ugly, possibly offensive badland, induced by human-programmed Molecular Nanotechnology machines that has made the operational “Coruscant” LEGO-like architecture into a severe useless mush-texture. Like whitish igloos made from water snow that surrounds those hand-made buildings, a re-surfaced Earth might darkened so much as to become almost a Blackbody, far less visible to distant roving Aliens scanners.
Planet “Coruscant”, source of universal bad happenings in a very popular Sci-Fi serial, the major motion-pictures issued by mostly Hollywood-based producers and scriptwriters. Imagine it reduced by urbicidal machines! (Google Image.)
Team Geographos’ macro-imagineering concept is predicated on the governing operational assumption that our world’s populace must have certain guiding Astro-biological data, such as intercepted distress calls, “screams”, or “cries” issued by life-forms elsewhere in the event- process of being eaten, accosted by migrating, feeding Alien hordes, who then treat the obstructed feedstock as savory comestibles. That alerting information may be provided by our passive observation or, perhaps, by human-launched Galactic Space Gardens (Gros, 2016) that have some reporting capability such as distress tattle-tale “squawking”.
If itinerant polyphagous Aliens were moving toward Earth, the CHAOS-CAP campaign goal is the timely generation of the igloo-like shelter, an actively disguised planet-size Rock of Gibraltar functioning as a strategically vital base for Homo sapiens’ anabasis survival macro- plan. Using such a long-term anti-Alien warfare scheme, humans may never be forced by circumstances to directly counter-attack a technologically superior foe since there can never be any question of ecological co-existence. In particular, Team Geographos fully accepts the useful concept that any landscape is a “…perceived entity that functions like a semiotic interface between resources and organisms” (Farina, 2008, page 75). It is probably best practice that humans should refrain from advertising indiscriminately both ourselves, as life-form VIPs, and our currently verdant planetary bioshell habitat.
Because interstellar trade between Aliens and humans seems to be very impractical as well as highly-improbable (Hickman, 2008), it seems feasible that most Aliens are spatial rovers, forever visiting places, even those that turn out to be desolate and unforgiving celestial bodies. The Team Geographos-contrived Macro-Imagineered “Earth Igloo” shelter should not be supposed an impregnable stronghold like the Rock of Gibraltar, though it would be affected tidally because of the Sun and Moon’s gravitational influence and the Coriolis force stemming from the Earth rotating. Instead, it would be a terrestrial, anti- colonialism, strictly-survival fortification completed by Molecular Nanotechnology’s tiny machines and feigning the food-less deadness of our present-day humanly unoccupied Mars (Haqq-Misra, 2016). CHAOS-CAP, as it affects our planet’s air content, is as a fast-acting reversing agent—that is, a sort of “Cambrian Implosion” (Husson and Peters, 2017)! Our dwelling’s camouflage will be attained using a formulated, specially-concocted Anthropogenic material (“grey goo”, an undifferentiated thick mass of Molecular Nanotechnology replicators—a Molecular Nanotechnology machine-mass replacing our landmass and the ocean’s topmost euphotic seawater layer) thoughtfully created by the induced global ecophagy of civilization’s Anthropostrome and Earth’s crust. Using a programmatic circumambient superficial Molecular Nanotechnology-machine mass
stratum that appears truly artless, with the human aim of evading all migrating predatory Aliens, the radical Greenism-inspired igloo-like shelter may become an effective Alien-spoofing global subterfuge. If Earth’s artificial “surface” is composed to appear as lifeless—that is, purely inorganic and definitely food-free—as the Moon, then possibly scornful or horrified Aliens won’t stop for a long duration exploratory period in our Solar System, or they may bypass our Solar System, actively shunning it! Telluric-gouging will not be undertaken by the Aliens, unless they themselves are some kind of locally rapidly adaptable extremophiles!
Expressing a sentence in one word [“Go”] as some human natives of our Earth’s Arctic Polar Zone languages do, “Earth Igloo” seems an appropriate holophrastic expression since the Earth-surface generated to fulfill our future civilization defense strategy will become nearly airless, cosmically odd and designed repulsive celestial body place that is just as inhospitable as the exterior of an ice-formed igloo or its rather bizarre surrounding wintertime frozen water terrain. Imagine Aliens examining Earth’s past “Snowball Earth”, racked by ice-cap cracking caused by tides in the covered ocean (Wunsch, 2016): such exploration would necessarily be fraught with perils like those faced by human hunters atop today’s diminishing Arctic ice-pack, but more dire!
No Livelihoods Required, Ever!
The term “geological time” [also known as Geologic Time] appeared in AD 1873 in the first volume of
A Treatise on Geology
by John Phillips (1800-1874). Thomas Dick (1774-1857), in his
(1838), provided a tabulation graphic listing
human populations of every Solar System planet then known by astronomers! Subsequently, other geoscientists conceived the Earth-surface as the anthropogenically “finished” end-product properly then serving durable industrially revolutionized European hegemonic civilization (Rupke, 1998). Richard Anthony Proctor (1837-1888), in
Other Worlds Than
(1870) expressed his deduction that every planet should be assumed inhabited until scientifically proven to be lifeless—that also seems to be the prevailing 21
Century wisdom of the NASA in the U.S.A., the ESA in Europe, JAXA in Japan, Russia and China’s space agencies et cetera. Sir Frederick Hoyle (1915-2001) alleged in
Of Men and Galaxies
(1964) that were Homo sapiens to finally exhaust Earth’s resources, as well as those resources encompassed by all other Solar System celestial objects, our civilization must eventually come to
the extinction of our species!
Treading the intellectual footprints of the pathfinder Erich Walter Zimmerman (1888-1961), the word “resource”, as used without facetiousness in this special-case Chapter Five predatory Alien invasion context, is an abstraction reflecting Alien appraisal and relating to a function or operation—what that thing or substance may perform. In other words, Aliens could be scouting the Milky Way Galaxy precisely because they needed to leave a homeland Solar System that ultimately became bereft of required Alien survival resources (Haqq-Misra and Baum, 2009). For humans, uranium is one substance that is now, since World War II, a resource that once was not.
Aristotle implied a rather interesting distinction of Earthly even- processes (human technology), one between cultivation—humans help Nature to produce more perfectly or abundantly things it usually produces—and construction—helping Nature to produce things it would not otherwise be capable of producing. That revered ancient Greek philosopher mulled the possibility of tools that would perform their own work in
Politics I, 4 (1253b23 to 1254a18)
. When humans mull things over we generally tend to ponder deeply on every little daedal detail; the word “mull” is related to Old English “myl”, meaning “something reduced to small particles”, such as our world’s innumerable miniscule sand grains. The refusal to acknowledge the existence of things unseen—the Ostrich Factor (de Hann, 1943) best
explained by Pliny the Elder in his more than 2,000 year-old tale—may become a fatal flaw of Homo sapiens’ ever more secularizing, 21
Century Ivory Tower-directed civilization. Certainly, a perfected future Molecular Nanotechnology, operating everywhere within the Earth- bioshell, is worthwhile for human’s to mull. Charles L. Adler’s
Wizards Aliens and Starships: Physics and Math in Fantasy and Science Fiction
(2014) is a superb reading resource for those who do mull such topics!
Nanogeoscience (Lower, 2002) must eventually become involved with R&D related to any attempted emplacement of a Molecular Nanotechnology Earth-surface mass of pseudo-Anthropic Rock. “Robot” has been in the English language vocabulary since the early-20
Century. [By last year, AD 2016, the Simbe Robotics Company had designed and began manufacturing automated supermarket retail planogram shelf-scanner wheeled mobile robots that ensures our favorite corner grocery store won’t ever be without a sufficient stockpile of Doritos!] Homo sapiens species members first built self-
replicatingmechanicalstructuresandelectro-mechanicalsystems during AD 1958-1959, after commencement of humankind’s Space Age.
“Astrobiology” was apparently neologized in AD 1953; by AD 1982, Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence [SETI] became professionalized, and applied, to our extra-Solar System’s universal circumstances. “Terraforming” (Beech, 2009) was coined a decade before “Astrobiology”, and Molecular Nanotechnology, harnessing tiny motile machines, has been proposed as an efficacious means of transforming Mars’ landscape (Freitas, 1983)—stated otherwise, instituting an Anthropocene addition to the naturally accumulating Geologic Time of Mars. Whilst it is possible for some humans to become badly estranged from Earth’s Nature, it is also possible for humans to enjoy a new Mars Nature, creating a baseline for another environmental generational amnesia that is good!
Nuclear war’s disruptive affect has been examined rather thoroughly in the popular Science reporting media as well as the Geoscience technical literature (Prosh and McCracken, 1985). If Earth’s ocean ever attained its highest possible post-Ice Age level, it would, naturally, submerge a large area of Earth present-day landmass freeboard. Using legerdemain of perfected future Molecular Nanotechnology, it should be achievable to construct a tenebrous ersatz Earth-surface, a veritable apparition of a dissolved human civilization which, had, in fact, absconded below this new and dangerous-to-predatory-Aliens sealed planetary face on the Universe!
Any monument is generally a fixed object, designed by its builder to remain on its site for all time. To deceive predatory Aliens, a denuded Earth’s seemingly creature-less and vegetation-less artificial Nano-mass must not have any curiosity-arousing bio-geomorphological features possibly attractive to Alien archaeologists, that in any recognizable way resemble the inviting Nazca Lines in the New World or Egypt’s derelict Old World pyramids. For sure, no machines can be left anywhere that hint at the possible manufacture of our planet’s deceptive crust! However, old non-functioning and crude spacecraft abandoned on the Moon might be retained by a hiding Homo sapiens as an indicatory proof, a predial palimpsest or emblem, of the fully unfolded deception scenario detailed herein by Team Geographos.
, a Google Image, Earth darkened by a Nano-mass.
Often ordinary everyday conversationalists and self-absorbed allusive poetry writers and reciters describe a fortunate event-process as “having turned the tide”. William Shakespeare (1564-1616) captured this compelling statement in his play
(Act IV, Scene 3, Line 2224): “There is a tide in the affairs of men, which taken at the flood leads on to fortune”. Humanity’s future “tide” might be apparent or evidently berserk tiny Molecular Nanotechnology-made robots sheathing and seething as Earth’s artificialized surface. The planet’s effulgence will be “catastrophically” dimmed in mere months whilst the Alien enemy of Homo sapiens, still traversing interstellar space, stealthily or not approaches our selected Solar System.
The renowned Shakespeare also originated the suitable descriptive phrase “…all the world’s a stage” in
As You Like It
(Act II, Scene 7, Line 1037). We are compelled to warn readers as well as theatergoers: anywhere upon God’s green Earth—a planetary geographical scale—people can be fooled by literary fictions and real- world mazes with various spacial dimensions! From a human Alien deceiver’s viewpoint, the critical phases of the Alien’s predation- hunting mode/menu-selection mode intelligence cycle are, standardly, the collection and processing phases—no form of deceptive active camouflage can be more effective than feeding the Alien’s long-range spy sensors with phony light reflections, energy emissions as well as other finessed kinds of potentially revelatory emanations. Here is where reasonable Greens are absolutely correct: disciplined sane humans in hiding must learn, and habitually keep, their discarded rubbish and waste heat via recycling, inside their enshelled world, possibly keeping Alien detectable warmth reading as close as possible to a normal heat signature equivalent to Dr. James Marvin Herndon’s still hypothetical Nature-piled Earth Georeactor!
Team Geographos’ CHAOS-CAP Macro-Imagineering concept sprang fully formed from a commercially sold anti-theft air-borne fog
building security system sold by a Canadian firm, Fog Security Systems (FSS) [GOTO:
]. Security specialists at FSS logically philosophize that if intrusive real property burglars cannot see the objects they intend or might desire to steal, then the hapless thieves cannot grasp any object or even escape quickly from the secured enclosure they have illegally entered by stealth. Would-be burglars are relegated to be unsuccessful apprehended prowlers subsequently soon facing Court-sentenced imprisonments! The major difference between our CHAOS-CAP idea and the real-world FSS product is that our CHAOS- CAP Macro-project will result in an active, even roiling, oil slick-like rind enclosing Earth. Beneath its real-time tumultuous and chaotic Molecular Nanotechnology-mass cap, radically transformed humans will live mostly in hibernation (Kondo, 1999), with energy supplied by Earth’s core whatever its true composition may be, as well from expected seawater tidal movements globally (Li et al., 2016). Human emplacement in seawater means there are not mining spoil heaps left as tell-tales on the planetary surface anywhere. Therefore, our artificially made-over Earth should appear to omniscient predatory Aliens to be the result of some Hollywood film-like devouring horror, the Sci-Fi Alien mineral creatures rampaging in
The Monolith Monsters
(1957): having already done their work, nothing Alien-edible remains to be harvested! [For sure, people might present the Aliens with the antithesis of the “White Elephant”.] In short, the CHAOS-CAP Macro- project builds a compleatly unattractive Earth resulting, both apparently and evidently, from some undefined “accident” of humanity’s runaway Molecular Nanotechnology technology which produced a vitro-static planetary surface swarming with virus-like micro-machine
! John Michael Crichton (1942-2008) penned techno-thriller novels which were timely topic exposes showing that humans are likely always to lose control of what they create.
(2002) focused on the “grey goo” macro-problem, is almost Biblical in its relentless revelation of a terrifying dust-to-dust plot. Absent Alien predation, Earth’s most lasting memento of Homo sapiens’ will
probably be deeply underground tunneled depositories of stored nuclear wastes and bits of high-technology electronics ceramics, according to Alan Weisman’s
The World Without Us
(2007) and Jan Zalasiewicz’s
The Earth After Us: What legacy will humans leave in rocks?
Were the future approach of hostile Aliens announced publicly to all human beings, such revelation is certain to cause Earth-surface real- estate values worldwide to drop precipitously, never to recover most likely; sub-surface value—however that might be expressed socially—of volumes of Earth-crust might, suddenly, extravagantly appreciate! Perhaps this could be best expressed as the opposite of today’s real- estate developments where super-wealth persons isolate themselves in central urban core penthouses, safely sequestered from our world’s violent and poor excluded persons. Team Geographos foresees “Earth- scrapers” that are the exact opposite in geophysical orientation and eco-sociological function as today’s “sky-scrapers”—but, more on that aspect of our grotesque Human Civilization Doomsday Scenario a little later!
Earth Sealed, Isolated from Non-Comical Cosmos: Not Fanciful!
Dr. Dominic Boyer (2011), who views our Sun as an “energopolitical” environmental agent, may possibly share, along with the late Richard B. Fuller, the “Spaceship Earth” cliché which offers a convenient mechanistic metaphor legitimizing Team Geographos’ Macro-Imagineering-themed humane solutions for Earth-bioshell Homo sapiens’ major unsolved ecologic and economic difficulties for the 21
Century and beyond (Sutton et al., 2009). A mostly non-solar derived “energopolitical”—that is, political power over a singular encased society through control of energy—can be imagined subsequent to CHAOS-CAP emplacement because heat generated by the whole Earth
What form of democratic human government might arise beneath Earth’s anti-Alien enrobing disguise in the form of a simple Molecular Nanotechnology CHAOS-CAP costume? Certainly humans cannot allow individual Molecular Nanotechnology artists unorganized leeway CHAOS-CAP managers: SEE: Alice Aycock’s
Project for Elevation with Obstructed Sight Lines
Geoscience has long adapted Architecture’s vocabulary to describe and explain various planetary features: arch, buttress, castellated, colonnade, cornice, cupola, dome, entablature, fluting, mullion, structure, palisade, pedestal, pediment, pendant, plates, floor, shelf, sill, tectonics, terrace and window are obvious instances of linguistic cooptation. Our planet’s present-day geochemical surface is an open, dynamic, non-equilibrated (but ordered) stationary self- organizing Earth System with both positive and negative feedbacks. So far in human history—supposedly comprehensively represented by the ceno-Anthropocene concept—the intelligent life-form Homo sapiens currently residing within this constantly changing geophysical domain has enjoyed cosmic seclusion. Bur, as the Drs. Charles S. Cockell and Marco Lee (2002) briefing outlines well that may not always be a
humans have nodesireto become apart of someaggressively expanding Aliens’ food-web!
The CHAOS-CAP passive resistance macro-project, in part, addresses a massive sculptural effort that, as a result, creates false geochemical and energy signatures—Earth may be made, intentionally, to appear like a toxic waste landfill after being bathed by a plasma torch (Johnson, 2002)! Team Geographos Earth’s Homo sapiens- installed new surface ought to closely replicate the AD 1969 artwork
poured by Land Art pioneer Robert Smithson (1938- 1973).
. What might be its general properties? The Lakeview Gusher of 14 March 1910 to mid-1912 AD in Maricopa County, State of
California, U.S.A. is one of our world’s most voluminous anthropogenic uncontrolled outflows of over-pressured subterranean petroleum bursting through a standard drill rig’s bored well-pipe safety valves. Even microbial life-forms, however, inhabit such warm liquid (Schulze- Makuch et al., 2011)! Such curious geological and biological facts leave Team Geographos wondering what might have transpired if James F. Black and Barry L. Tarmy (1963) had actually inspired a real-world paving of a 16 kilometer-wide coastal landscape strip to induce an greatly increased rainfall upon the Libyan desert of North Africa! Artist Robert Smithson’s 1969
is not as interesting as Benedetto Bufalin’s
Disco Ball Cement Mixer
(2016), really a mix-and- deliver concrete truck with mirror stuck to its revolving tank that when illuminated by multiple spot-lights glitters magnificently, entertaining and stimulating wildly dancing humans clustered in the central part of an impromptu, a closed to traffic public street dance floor.
Dumped near Rome, Italy, this IS Robert Smithson’s
. For further pertinent artistic remarks, SEE: Simon Dell (Ed.)
On Location: Siting Robert Smithson and His Contemporaries
(2008). (Google Image.)
Mr. Bufalino building his fun version of the mirrored disco ball. (Google Image.
Sadly, our Earth-surface has been desiccated and desecrated by the cultural and economic activities of Homo sapiens because some industries and nationalized noosystem-ecosystems tended to dispose of wastes with very little regard for future consequences, resulting in vast regions of contaminated landscape and oceanic seascapes. Used to describe only landscapes which have been spoiled by the extraction of minerals, by dirty industrial actions, or as a result of sheer neglect, the word “derelict” is an apt appellation for landscapes incapable of further beneficial use without remedial treatment. Robert Smithson’s
illustrated artwork is an outstanding example of a contaminated derelict landscape Team Geographos would condone, if the need arises, on a much grander geographical scale to utterly discourage, distract and help to oust invasive predatory Aliens from our Solar System! Basically, the manufactured telluric surface will become an intentional piece of eutectic installation Art—that is, black Anthropic Rock resembling seething tapioca or a porridge with a mean attitude— forming a new type of Earth-crust consisting of thin, hardened or semi- hardened, foam-like concretion on all Earth’s landscape area as well as a thick, flexible yet impenetrable boiling scum sitting atop the world- ocean. Neither region will be easily conducive to the Alien’s predictably
advanced imaging techniques based, say, on magneto-telluric principles (Liu and Hasterok, 2016).
Upon the ocean, a mat covering comprised of various homogenous shapes will float stably in all possible orientations; some energy deflection shapes could be induced to have peculiar harmonic oscillator properties. It is because both landscape and seascape are converted from Nature’s bounteous surfaces to totally artificiality it the true basis for Team Geographos to consider this unfortunate Geologic Time moment as the true onset of Earth’s Anthropocene! Such properties should be useful to Homo sapiens’ camouflaging endeavors since they may be carefully harnessed to assist masking any human generated cultural noise—the unintentional sounds that come from some vital, unstoppable machinery, for instance. Team Geographos imagines the finished CHAOS-CAP Macro-project as a unitary, massively distributed, globe-enveloping, “immobot”, an immobile robotic additive manufacturing scum composed of diverse persistent chemical elements that is totally planet-bound, forever restrained by gravity (Roush, 2003). This Alien-repelling carpet will, after its emplacement during a very brief period of Earth’s Geologic Time, process most of our planet’s air, folding those gas molecules—especially oxygen—into its own “body” of deliberately rampant self-assembling Molecular Nanotechnology mini- machines, simultaneously saving it for humanity’s use—in fact a “mass savings account” deposit to be tapped for use only by humans.
Cowering from the custody of food-hunting Aliens means that an established, soundly organized and professionalized human elite of unfrighten top-flight geoscientists, combined with a group of Installation Art geniuses ultimately must anticipate
possible geodynamic effect of our abruptly transformed Nature that may
be monitored by meat-eating Aliens intent on uncovering the living eudemonic presence of Homo sapiens. Possibly, by the judicious use of ultra-low noise, high-voltage piezo drivers, humans-in-hiding must
provision themselves adequately. No centralized catalogue exists for all living species native to Earth, numbering in millions, and so, it will be vitally necessary to preserve captured DNA for future de-extinction use when the time is appropriate—that is, for real after the humankind’s survival crisis has receded, not histrionic, loaded with suspect Science of the
serialized movies (Bacon and Swindles, 2016). It is
estimated that the lower bound on the total information content in our present-day Earth-bioshell is 5.3 X 10
mega-bases of DNA (Landenmark et al., 2015): DNA may soon become a technically perfected means to permanently encrypt and store all human data, even using synthetic DNA. Because of Biology’s increasing trend toward Physics and Self-organization R&D theories, it may result that the advances of the21
Century will push professionalized Biology to become a subset of the physics of fluids, as macro-imaginatively proposed, long ago, by Stephane Leduc (1853-1939). DNA resurrection based on the contents of a zoo-like globalized shelled facility will not be capable of recreating Nature in all its God-bestowed original glory (McCauley et al., 2016); sadly, any de-extinctions will probably result in
eco-zombies—because Nature’s ecology cannot be fully restored—the inevitable living and reproducing causalities from an invasive Alien’s premeditated assault on our Earth-bioshell! Humanity’s unpreventable and probably irretrievable loss to universal Fate’s fickleness is the undesired ecological result.
Earth-bioshell Praxis: Not Alienation, instead Hibernation
Typically, humanity’s industrial activity superimposes upon Earth a surface layer of distinctly artificial composition and noteworthy architected structure. A chief characteristic of Homo sapiens’ massive anthropogeomorphical world change is that it has no significant Geologic Time record. There is no professional geoscientific coterie yet established anywhere to competently assess the long-term future durability of multitudinous human made and developed objects,
whether constructed or shaped by people motivated by need or madness, and those normal Greens who are focused on the subject often seem preoccupied with purely reshaping geophysical event- processes (accelerated erosion of landscapes owing to bad land-use practices, so-called desertification, widespread fishing trawler-caused seafloor raking, et cetera). Installation Art practitioners do provide some useful approaches to the proper underpinning documentation of the site-specific CHAOS-CAP Macro-project designed for Earth. On 24 October 2001, a month before the terribly successful 11 September 2001 twin-complex World Trade Towers terrorist attack in New York City, at Oxford Street in London, England, Mr. Michael Landy exhibited the machine-granulated remains of all of his personal possession in a display advertised as
. Such artwork is in the same genre as that shown by the teachings of Jean Tinguely (1925-1991) and Gustav Metzger (born 1926): humans ought properly to speak only of Nature and damaged Nature. The artist Gordon Matta-Clark (1943-1978) provided another aspect of the art of building and structure implosive demolition. In the context of Team Geographos’ CHAOS-CAP, Mr. Landy’s public exercise seems most appropriate!
Practitioners of Installation Art, which has some elements of professional Engineering and Architecture, have a remarkably different perspective on Anthropogeomorphological event-processes than Geoscience’s professors. Glasgow Tower, a 122 meter-tall building, completed during 2000 AD, in Scotland, is our world’s first building to rotate 360
on its base, imitating our Earth on its axis. [For other examples, SEE: Chad Randl’s
Revolving Architecture: A History of Buildings that Rotate, Swivel, and Pivot
(2008).] These differences are
the reasons that implementation of CHAOS-CAP could be arduous: (I) Artists of the Installation Art persuasion wish to win approval from the world-public, whilst geoscientists want the unconditional respect of their peers; (II) Earthly Geologic Time is, in our working terms, short for Installation Art installers but potentially long for professional
investigators of our homeland planet’s Nature; (III) the focus of expression is the external logic of the macro-problem in contra- distinction to Geoscience’s interest in the macro-problem’s internal logic; (IV) the mode of thought for Installation Art decision-makers, emotive artists themselves, is specific, opposed to the inductive and generic thinking of properly trained Geoscience persons; (V) Installation Art practitioners seek a reliable solution for their personal expressions but obviously share the quintessentially human desire for original insight with all geoscientists; (VI) Installation Art’s demonstrations and displays are usually abstruse and qualified whilst those of from Geoscience are, at least temporarily, simple and absolute macro-plans;
(VII) Installation Art mainly results in objects reflecting multiple possibilities with uncertainties emphasized, whilst “best solution”, with uncertainties hidden, is sought by both academic and industry-oriented Anthropo-geomorphologists. To certainly insure humanity’s maximal physical longevity and future happiness is one of equanimity, both valid viewpoints ought to be successfully melded. It may be that the schism once separating these groups of thinkers/doers has already been healed, or is in an advanced state of near-solution, by technology’s overall progress—especially the ongoing development of Molecular Nanotechnology. Post-Ice Age global sea-level rise is one outstanding example of an ongoing Earthly geophysical change that every artist and geoscientist must take into account when planning and carrying out any specific coast-related artwork or macro-project!
Does it seem likely that, in avoiding being devoured as carnivore Alien-relished “people pabulum” Homo sapiens might somehow raise its collective intelligence? Team Geographos assumes the answer is YES, especially in what could be a true “think tank” situation! “Intelligence” encompasses both a broad range of abilities and the efficiency with which they are enacted; flexibility and creativity are implied by the term. In other words, blending instinct and intelligence can generate a very novel solution to the potential macro-problem
posed by threatening predatory Alien invaders of our Solar System; effectively, the CHAOS-CAP Macro-project is the equivalent of a major, abrupt global climate regime (Calvin, 2001). Enveloped in an indoor climate below the possibly meters-thick cast artificial Earth-crust, transformed people will live in a new and uniquely different noosystem. Whilst some artificial indicator noise is in non-eliminable, background reality noise generated by the planet must not be artificially muffled.
How many human persons can our whole, undamaged world support? Earth’s estimated population is 7.3 billion, more than twice doubling since John Heaver Fremlin (1913-1995) speculated humorously on the ultimate technical limits to human population increase in the 29 October 1964 issue of the UK weekly magazine
. Today, demography’s prognostications are less grim than those publicized more than a half-century ago but, nevertheless, are not really rosy outlooks either. An esurient humanity, already stomping about, leaving a gigantic ecological-footprint on a widely-presumed permanently subdued Nature, may in future devise a new type of geophysical homeland wherein Hollywood’s cherished
Singin’ in the Rain
(1952) will, if still viewed by humans utilizing some technical means yet to be invented, will be an unfathomable curiosity. Such was the gloomy, yet logical, tread and trend-projection of the late James G. Ballard’s Sci-Fi short-story
(1957). Ballard’s subsequent 1962 to 1966 AD tetralogy of deservedly graphic popular novels focus on humanity’s mainly coast-sited civilization destroyed by elemental disasters: literally blown-away in
The Wind from Nowhere
, permanently immersed by seawater in
The Drowned World
, toasted to a crisp in
The Burning World
and, lastly, converted to a luminescent mineral in
The Crystal World
. Possibly Dr. J. H. Fremlin was inspired by Sci-Fi novelist Ballard’s surreal musings to reasonably imagine a future Earth-bioshell enveloped by a massive, yet technically uncomplicated, shell-like constructed edifice. During the closing years of the previous century, Julian Simon (1933-1998) campaigned for world acceptance of
the proposition that natural resources are not finite in any serious way; they are created by the intellect of Homo sapiens. In brief, Simon believed in the Technological Fix; humankind is the ultimate resource”, somewhat like a nuclear breeder reactor. In
The Fire of Life: An Introduction to Animal Enegetics
(1961), Max Kleiber (1893-1976) offered his calculation that about 0.027% of Earth’s mass is carbon, a word derived from Latin meaning charcoal; if, Kleiber concluded, our planet’s total stock of carbon ever became embodied strictly in cannibalistic humans, then about 100,000,000,000,000,000,000 such provisioned and depraved creature-persons could exist simultaneously! Of course, this planet’s human populace could never increase to the level at which all carbon is containerized by the human biomass—there would be no Earth! However, once human energy use becomes comparable to the photosynthetic energy of the Earth-bioshell, our species then must evade the risk of altering Nature to a stage such that we must take over all its existing functions and, at the same moment in Geologic Time, markedly increase the harnessed energy directed by humans in that monumental event-process. Eventually, people might simply de-couple themselves physically from Earth’s bioshell.
Dr. John Heaver Fremlin,
(Google Image), macro- imagined a globe-enrobing building that containerized all life, where the only limitation is the capability of still-to-be-invented technology to rid that homogenized superficial shell of its heat, generated by many people congregated, packed and parked inside his very massive skyscraper place. When Fremlin published his unparalleled Macro- Imagineering vision in 1964, Earth’s humans numbered approximately three billion persons. He correctly estimated that group would double in 37 years—that is, by AD 2001—and it actually did total six billion persons by that year. From such statistical beginnings, he went further
than others during the 20
Century, looking ahead to form a reasoned
guesstimate as to when the epoch of Homo sapiens’ near total disconnection from Nature, a severance caused by technology’s
advances linked with human population increase, could possibly occur. In his haunting scenario, he rightly surmised that Earth’s bioshell will be afflicted with 875 years’ growth at 2% annually (60 X 10
persons) housed in a 2,000-storey shell-shaped building covering the entire planet and finally limited in volume by the availability of materials strong enough to bear enormous static loads at the temperature which the roof would reach in radiating out all the heat produced by the enclosed living inhabitants and their life-supportive machinery.
Ultimately, Dr. J.H. Fremlin subdivided his Macro-Imagineering scenario’s timeframe into five remarkable epochs: Stage One (400,000 million persons in 260 years’ time), Stage Two (up to 3 billion in 370 years’ time), Stage Three (up to 15 billion in 800 years’ time), Stage Four (up to 100 billion in 680 years’ time), a “Dead End” Stage (up to 12 trillion in 800 years’ time) followed by his Stage Five (up to 60 trillion in 890 years’ time). Stage Five indicates that Earth’s finiteness, more exactly its humans-only carrying capacity, guarantees that a ceiling on ultimate Homo sapiens population increases could exist for a single Solar System celestial body, no matter how much Macro-Imagineering ingenuity in the form of deployed technology is wielded by our wily descendants! Dr. Viorel Mihail Badescu (born 1953), an internationally famous physicist working at the Candida Oancea Institute of the Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Romania, and R.B. Cathcart, a private-sector consultant geographer with Geographos situated from AD 1969 in Burbank, State of California, U.S..A., laboriously re- calculated Dr. Fremlin’s demographic macro-problem in 2006 AD with
the idea of updating its memorable non-demonstrated mathematical outcomes—that is, to refigure Dr. Fremlin’s picturesque popularly published verbalized model of corrupted Nature’s inherent limits to humankind’s final Earth-confined civilization. We discovered that if a demi-global heat pump, powered only by intercepted solar energy, is used to evacuate heat from the encrusted whole Earth to a radiator facing outer space, then the maximum human populace ranges between 1,600 and 4,000 million million, which is a “…full order of magnitude lower than Fremlin’s 1964 scenario for a Stage 5 human civilization” (Badescu and Cathcart, 2007, page 414).
With the framework mega-project concept of CHAOS-CAP, however, it is technically impossible to equal J.H. Fremlin’s last iteration. Nowadays, Art’s informed adherents contemplate 21
Century Bio-technology’s promise. If hungry Aliens could interact with people like a deadly intelligent pathogen, then Homo sapiens may resist by adopting evasive asymmetrical military tactics, securing a safe hideaway below the Earth-surface’s manifestly unnatural stage, enveloped in e-textile uniforms fabricated with greater fidelity than today’s spacesuits, woven and tailored by Molecular Technology’s
miniscule machines, enjoying a peaceful bionic lifetime of electronically-augmented geophysical and cultural reality. Uniformity of these survival garments means there must finally be a termination of any social fashion competition! Team Geographos foresees garment far more conducive to inhabitation than the tin-can worn by a male actor playing the beloved role of “The Robot” in the U.S.A. television series
Lost in Space
broadcast from 1965 until 1968. CHAOS-CAP ought to be classified as an intelligent skinned shell-like building, an ecosystem that is its own computer. The innumerable life-sustaining body-bags enclosing non-identical intelligent beings ought to be pointedly named “tethered jellyfish”. The volume of the world-ocean occupied by the anchored, almost gelatinous containers—resembling Hyperid Amphipods camouflaged by nanometer-sized bacteria—will vary
according to the total population of individuals at any one time of Earth’s Geologic Time. Essentially, this domicile combines a perfected cybernetics, as proposed in 1943 by Norbert Wiener (1894-1964) with surgical and gene-based manipulations of the human physique proposed in AD 1965 by Oswald Wiener, who estimates that future humans may eventually consist only of the residual helmeted human head! Seawater pressure, increasing with depth, determines the volume of world-ocean available for our use as live storage space (Noack et al., 2016).
Since 1970, biologists have contemplated future surgeries involving total human head transposition and brain transplantation. Chet Fleming of The Dis Corporation obtained U.S.A. Patent 4,666,425 on 19 May 1987 for its “Device for perfusing an animal head”. Fleming foresaw a discorped head cloistral cabinet providing physical support for the severed living head, even a human head. Whole head transposition in mammals was first achieved by Vladimir Petrovich Demikhov (1916-1998) in Russia and later by the American medical professional Robert Joseph White (1925-2010). Both physicians must have been indubitably inspired by the European anatomist William Harvey (1578-1657)! Air is human life’s fundamental resource, and it can be economically extracted from seawater by, for example, the materialization of U.S.A. Patent 6,346,141, “Supplying breathable gas for underwater habitat”, awarded on 12 February 2002 to Marshall L. Nuckols, Jeremy A. Pelstring and Benjamin M. Stinespring. Cautionary Note: John Jordan, in
, declares: “I am saying that body contributes more than life support and modulatory effects to the brain. It contributes a
that is part and parcel of the working of the normal mind” (Jordan, 2016, page 229). The ancient Greek ideal of a sound mind in a sound body sentiment is, possibly, an eternal verity ignored at our species’ future peril.
Human beings, in their present-day physiological form and function, may soon be equipped with artificial gills. Such a radical shift is at least equal in effect to the cultural invention of agriculture and humankind’s fast urbanization of Earth’s landmass. Human heads fitted into special minimum volume computer-wired aquanaut helmets, securely attached to oceanic stalactite “Ivory Tower”-scrapers, preventing any escape of DNA traces, thereby limiting human DNA in seawater to an amount too genetically tiny to ever allow hunting Alien detection (Kelly et al., 2016). The goal of human exoscience camoufleurs is a uniform heads-only passive Homo sapiens, possibly reproducing at a uniform rate via in vitro-style Genetics, in a uniform seawater environment (pressure and temperature), like a uniformly life-less existence, with all uniform physical needs satisfied by uniform nourishment and lively computer stimulation: when accomplished most of humanity’s macro-problems cease to be so! Cocooned thusly, non- hibernating human heads will continue to make progress in Science, making little impact overall even on their swaddling world-ocean residence. Such existence reeks of the final radical Greenism’s penultimate dream—humanity’s Earth-powered “tomb” becomes a single Mother Earth womb-like environment since anti-terraforming Greens, who base their arguments mostly on aesthetics, generally preclude another womb, Mother Mars, or even a cradling Worldship enterprise! Mariko Mori’s varying hued artistic sculpture
Tom Na H-iu II
is dimly lit by readouts of the Super-Kamiiokande Observatory at the University of Tokyo’s Institute for Cosmic Ray Research in Japan (Austen, 2013).
Masquerading as extinct via a Wiener’s World strategic ploy, Earth’s maximum human-head populace could be 1,833,333,333,333 whilst relying essentially only on geothermal energy generated naturally by Earth’s fission nuclear core and our planet’s other radioactive crust-mantle materials. Such unusual human survival circumstances would result in a nearly liquefied Earthly Noosphere
encased by topographically uninteresting manufactured materials. This unique, sea-watery, Earth-rind/cyberspace geophysical combination is named for Oswald Wiener (born 1935), inventor during 1962-1967 of the human “Bio-adapter”. Whilst the human body is about 70% water, the human brain is 90% water. Team Geographos assumes each bio- adapter will have a final useful volume of 3,000 centimeters so that 1,833,333,333,333 mostly identical helmets will have a total volume of, approximately, 5.49 cubic kilometers—our world-ocean’s volume (1.5 billion cubic kilometers) will increase by only 0.000000366% with the deposition of all life-supportive packaged human brain-cases and their necessary appurtenances.
Any person entering a Bio-adapter becomes part of a total cultural environment in which every possible gratification, both mental and physical, is producible by that person’s snuggly electromechanical machinery. The Bio-adapter gradually and painlessly absorbs the individual whole person initially containerized, sundering that person from geophysical reality, yet still conscious of our planet’s gravity. One noteworthy effect this separation causes is a vast reduction in the energy rejected into the world engulfing humanity, because heat is an unavoidable and continuous byproduct of work done by the human body’s tissues and organs—action of heart muscle, diaphragm and limbs, activity in most of the nervous system as well as the biochemical breakdown of ingested food ceases! Since the person is minimized, partially disembodied in fact, to just a masked braincase, that person will require only 20% of the energy of an intact nude human body—that is, 24 Watts instead of 120 Watts for a whole-bodied person—because the brain is about 2% of a normal human’s bulk. The brain uses more energy than any other organ of the body; about 60% of its energy budget helps neurons send signals whilst 34% is harnessed for cell health maintenance. Even canned by a helmet, it is improbable that the human brain will atrophy; more than 50% of the muscles in the human body resist Earth’s gravity (Kuipers et al., 2009). The possibility looms: a
one-time only opportunity, instigated by the Astrologic Time predicted arrival of enemy Aliens or, equally possible, some other foreseen Solar System-wide destructive event-process during Earth’s Geologic Time to conserve planetary surface area or increase the absolute number of persons dwelling within a Homo sapiens compartmentalized Earth. Its inventor visualized subterranean head-holding Bio-adapters beneath Earth’s then almost Utopic Greenism-recommended people-less landscape—their craziest moral touchstone! A few of the “Borg” characters portrayed in
Star Trek: First Contact
(1996) was recognizably human-heads affixed to indestructible metallic machinery. Anchorage to stalactite-like Ivory Towers of all adapted human-heads, a silent hard-wired fiber-optical communication inter-connection is maintained between individuals as well as the community, so it will be quite unlikely that heretics, hermits, mystics, prophets and philosophers will ever be stimulated.
Molecular Nanotechnology makes it possible to envision the pleasing prospect of a potential future planetary environmental condition whereby the necessary resources required by those still essentially human allows such persons to exist for an unending Geologic Time period; resources inhering in filterable seawater will be available always with virtually no exertion by humans! It is possible this refugee aquatic settlement will have a virtual capital or maybe not. It will be improbable that reduced-bulk humans, bodiless citizens, will be afflicted by a “Maginot Line” groupthink mentality (Ahlstrom and Wang, 2009) since the rather thin anthropogenic solid barrier that is the Molecular Technology-made “neo-Earth-crust” can never be so obdurate that it cannot be demolished by powerful Alien super- technologies!
Spoofing: Alien-misleading Broadcasting
Since Homo sapiens commenced outdoor light-pollution during the early-20
Century, a few years prior to humanity’s use of radio,
television and radar transmissions, it is likely that some interstellar predators will first be attracted to our planet’s unnatural light emissions because fiber-optic cables have already greatly reduced the noise emanating from Earth and its artificial satellites. This startling fact means that the strictly Earth-based human civilization must, as soon as possible after finally assessing the predatory Aliens are navigating toward our Solar System, coordinate its spurious transmissions in order to convey to still far-distant listeners and television viewers that Homo sapiens has made a colossal and deadly Molecular Nanotechnology R&D mistake, unleashing a horde of unstoppable, voracious tiny machines that are eating our world’s natives and reducing mankind’s most undeniably magnificent erected infrastructure to a darkish digested dust! Perhaps on a geographical scale vastly exceeding that of the AD 1962 worldwide global nuclear warfare scare Cuban Missile Crisis, such frantic, fear-filled radio and television scripting will require the best desperate efforts ever of mankind’s greatest authenticating minds—Hollywood’s hacks, skilled in stink-o film sequel and horrid re- make script-writing, or worse so-called original flicks such as
(2016), an interstellar sleeper spaceship (people are mere slumbering cargo) not a multi-generational Worldship wherein awake persons live and die in interstellar space, finally becoming useful resources for offspring survival during as in
(1973) during AD 2022, must never be seriously considered! No human broadcast can ever betray any hint that humans are aware of an Alien approach to Earth; the sneakier and more subtle these strictly choreographed imaginings are the better for humanity. The rattling “death cries” of Homo sapiens’ civilization as it is, literally, dissolving into an ongoing lethal sublunary Moonscape must horrify the Aliens, provoking them to alter their spacecraft trajectories, passing swiftly through our plagued Solar System to avoid the Earth igloo shelter about which they have no knowledge. Civilizations are “collapsed” whenever there is a rapid loss of sociopolitical-ecological complexity and every bit of information Aliens collect must indicate that humans could not adapt to a ghastly—
literally, global climatic regime ruination—beyond our technically “primitive” civilization’s capacity to resolve by any means. Aliens could be hungry enough when they arrive in our Solar System so that their dash to another Solar System is hastened by the absence of meals locally! We might even arrange cleverly to attract the Aliens to another Solar System that we are sure is without any living edible resources [meat] utilizable by Aliens; a macro-project using human-fabricated, sterilized and AI-directed White Elephant space probes sent to distant Solar Systems provide false bait-calls by broadcasting an intelligent species’ ordinary super-activities; such bait must be automated for self- destruction should Aliens approach to examine or board the probes. Team Geographos calls such risky ploy employing spoofing space probes “Our New Sci-Fi Channel”.
Relief-offering New Worlds for Homo sapiens
After the Aliens depart our Solar System, our avatars can emerge then from beneath its protective carapace to regenerate consanguineous whole human bodies via DNA technologies and to, subsequently, terraform Mars, Venus and Titan (Wohlforth and Hendrix, 2016) for our future sustainable colonization. In other words, people can resume being people mostly as God made them! It might be wise to delay Earth’s restoration—partial recreation of its known and remembered natural ecosystems, landscapes and seascapes—for some protracted period of Geologic Time since the farther from us the Aliens are located, the better for our species. [Voyager I’s departure from our
Solar System during the early-21
Century established Homo sapiens as
an interstellar species, by electro-mechanical proxy.] Meantime, why not reinforce the Aliens’ Homo sapiens-induced misperception by altering the Moon’s albedo drastically? That discreet Macro- Engineering effort might thoroughly convince the Aliens that some wild, even threatening electro-mechanical “race” of invisible self-replicating machines, the Nano-mass we have lightheartedly dubbed “graffiti of
the extinct”, has become spacefaring and, thus, capable of Alien pursuit! Earthlings will never protest the historically accurate vilification of Aliens with an Alien anti-defamation league, but they will have to engage with a new religious concept—that not everything God created is good.
To deftly close this somewhat gloomy essay on a happier, uplifting tone, Team Geographos supposes that humanity summarily forgives the Aliens when, once again, surfaced whole humans enjoy the newness of a day lit by our Sun’s rising. Quoting
The Holy Bible
, Psalm 90: 4-5: “For a thousand years in your sight, are like yesterday when it is past, or like a watch in the night. You sweep them away; they are like a dream, like grass that is renewed in the morning.” In the gap between perfection and contingency, our long duration hibernation period will be useful when we awaken—one of the key functions of sleep is the consolidation of memories; dreams are unconscious thoughts that are ambiguously linked to the extra-somatic world. “In short, dreaming may be believing—in that people are likely to see meaning in their dreams— but the weight accorded to particular dreams may be moderated by the extent to which dreams are in accordance with dreamers’ agendas once awake” (Morewedge and Norton, 2009, page 249). A small amount of propranolol (C
), a non-selective beta-blocker first brewed in the 1950s by James Whyte Black, who received the Noble Prize in Medicine for its discovery in 1988, will weaken or erase all memories of fear that might be retained by the human amygdala. In other words, seeing a spectacular “first dawn” will not be an unwelcome surprise; such an event-process also confirms the impermanency of human colonialism, but with regard only to the Earth.
Failure Case: Shatter Sun Contingency Plan
Still marketed by its originator, Joseph Enterprises Inc. of San Francisco, State of California, “Chia Pet” marks its 35
Anniversary during AD 2017. The decorative fired pottery figures serve as portable
pedestals for the growth of a live herb (Salvia Columbariae) from a factory-applied seeded coating of gel-like plant nutrients. Although the name was first adopted on 8 September 1977, and remains today a U.S.A.-registered trademark, the famous “Animalia figurine” concept is legally protected by U.S.A. Patent 5,549,500 awarded on 27 August 1996. Manufactured in variously styled shapes, the entertaining toy is an artwork certainly fully competed by plant life affixed to a machine- thrown, and pottery-oven baked, clay base. Team Geographos’ camouflage, elucidated at length earlier in this chapter, really combined two concepts: (I) the “Chia Pet” and (II) Robert Dell’s Icelandic “Geothermal Art” (Dell, 2000). Diverse Natures, the known Universe, all forms of life wherever located can exhibit capriciousness; so, possibly, may ultra-advanced Molecular Nanotechnology’s mini-machines!
Humans first noticed in our sky the sudden eruptions of supernovae many thousands of years ago since, in our Milky Way Galaxy, they occur at rate of about 1-3 per century (Stephen and Clark, 1976); in AD 2008 a star we have since designated V1309 Scorpii expectedly exploded, producing a red nova that excited astromers. The heavens are technically malleable, naturally changeable and absolutely not eternal in their relative physical layout. Indeed, astronomers predict the merging of a contact binary star in the visible part of the constellation Cygnus as viewed by Earthlings, contributing another bright twinkle to the recognizable Northern Cross star pattern. Named KIC 9832227, the contact binary star will aggregate by merging in the year AD 2022.2 plus or minus 0.6 years to create another red nova outburst!
If CHAOS-CAP, an anti-Le Corbusier cellar-machine for living, and all its collateral subsidiary electro-chemical stratagems, utterly fail to dissuade or frighten our Solar System’s invasive pathological Aliens from committing heinous acts against Homo sapiens, then it may become necessary to deliberately explode the Sun (Bolonkin and
Friedlander, 2013) in order to decisively comminute such evil Aliens! Were our Sun to explode, becoming an deliberate anthropogenic nova, its light reaching Earth 8.3 minutes later would be visually much different, but the first arrival of the Sun’s expelled matter won’t reach Earth for about 22 hours. That will cause massive damage when Earth is intercepted by stellar matter! [SEE the Sci-Fi Hollywood movie’s Earth- surface vaporization by hugely unique solar flaring:
Given time to escape the anthropogenic blaze that means the evil Aliens may not be entirely destroyed, perhaps only decimated! However, until more advanced technologies become available that act of defiance-by-death is about the best that present-day Homo sapiens can macro-imagine: sacrifice so that other intelligent creatures situated somewhere else in the vastness that is just the Homo sapiens-known Universe, may not become victims quite so fast! Such an unpredictable heavenly event-process—unnaturalness of star explosion—will surely draw the attention of kindlier Aliens elsewhere in the Milky Way Galaxy: it is to be hoped they will perceive our Sun’s explosion as a warning! In other words, Earth will
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About the Author
Richard B. Cathcart
Richard B. Cathcart is a geographer specializing in macro-engineering and founder of the GEOGRAPHOS consulting group. He recently published
How Modern Sci-Fi layed the foundation for future Macro-Engineering by Macro-Imagineering
Seawater can be a beneficent liquid, sometimes tranquil, soft and tractable, but sometimes, it causes peril for humans, as well as economic losses. Not insignificantly, the San Andreas fault parallels the easternmost edge of the existing Salton Sea.
“Atmospheric Rivers” are a lately recognized global geographical feature that could drastically impact the wild and cultured thinking creatures dependent on the flow of the Mississippi River and the entire Gulf Coast.