Article in Energy
Our analysis of the physical world has uncovered another source of the so-called “hot-clocking” energy - a continuous inflow of impetuses from the clock pulses driving the holographic mechanism of the Universe.
 
 
 

Abstract

The idea that “cold fusion” can be responsible for the alleged “excess heat” effect encounters a fierce opposition, even in various Low Energy Nuclear Reaction adaptations. Yet a “cold fusion” device containing nickel and hydrogen recently introduced by Rossi and Focardi seems to exhibit “excess heat” in a very pronounced way. This sensational discovery gives rise to great expectations and urges for an explanation. In conventional physics, the ultimate energy in the Universe is associated with the transmutation ability of the stockpile of one -time created matter. Our analysis of the physical world has uncovered another source of the so-called “hot-clocking” energy [1] - a continuous inflow of impetuses from the clock pulses driving the holographic mechanism of the Universe. This energy is different from zero -point quantum energy, it is related to mesocsopic aggregates and is extracted by means of parametric resonance. So, linear polymer structures can attain orderly motions for biological objects (most baffling example present flying insects), and hence, possibly, allow constructing an artificial muscle mechanical engine [2]. Bulk crystalline structures can acquire just chaotic motions resulting in an “excess heat” alleged to “cold fusion”. The disconcerting irreproducibility of “cold fusion” may be due to power-law instability of resonance conditions; the situation can be improved in autoparametric mode by utilizing some catalyzer, preferably, an organic substance, to enhance self-excited conformational oscillations, or directly by parametric resonance with SHF. Nuclear reactions are not involved in the “excess heat” production. The suggested process shows new machinery for intermittent mesoscopic physics phenomena, like in linking nanoscale light emitters.

Don't believe the results of experiments until they're confirmed by theory
Sir Arthur Eddington

1. Introduction. The sensational appearance of Rossi-Focardi process

Theory is a good thing, but a good experiment is forever
P. L. Kapitsa

What Andrea Rossi and Sergio Focardi have discovered [3,4] is difficult to believe. The situation reminds a joke: “seeing a giraffe in a zoo someone said: “This cannot be possible”, and rashly took himself off.” But the problem is too serious to be dismissed, and it urges for an explanation.

In essence, Rossi-Focardi device, called Energy Catalyzer (e-cat), looks rather simple. This device containing a mixture of nickel powder and gaseous hydrogen is able to generate certain “excess heat”. Seemingly, it produces more energy than it consumes, allegedly by a factor of 6-30, and even in a self-sustained mode without any power input at all. This discovery goes along the lines of the notorious Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann claims of “cold fusion”, whose verifications for more than two decades were inconclusive [5,6]. “Pons and Fleischmann made some minor mistakes, but their fundamental claim of excess heat, despite some poorly sourced and misleading literature that says otherwise, was never disproved”[6].

Supposedly, the e-cat of Rossi-Focardi may get through the “cold fusion” controversies. Possible objections to this state of affairs have been widely discussed.

(1) Experimental error

An uncomplicated explanation of the “excess heat” would relate to some lack of skill in experimental measurements. This could be mulled over if the effect were miniscule. But the effect is robust, and ordinary thermal measurements are among the simplest in experimental physics. So, a systematic error in detecting the energy misbalance seems resolutely impossible.

(2) Deliberate fraud

Purportedly, the reported observations of the “excessive heat” could be instigated by self-deception or deliberate scientific fraud. But this state of affairs appears unlikely because “cold fusion” misbalances of energy have been replicated by scores of independent researchers. Still, one very important circumstance has to be taken into account: the “cold fusion” outcomes are not reproducible at all the times, just only in about 30% of the experiments. This obscure issue will be specifically addressed in the paper.

(3) Low energy nuclear processes

According to regular science the “excess heat” cannot be expected other than from a nuclear reaction. Such an expectation, however, confronts the existing theory: nuclear fusion is not possible at ordinary temperatures and pressures since like- charged atomic nuclei do not have sufficient might to overcome the Coulomb barrier. An unconventional theory by Widom and Larsen [7] suggests how this might happen with low energy nuclear processes (LENR). A hydrogen cation H+ – a proton – can capture an electron and transform into a neutron. The uncharged neutron obviates Coulomb barrier and penetrates into a positively charged nucleus where ensuing nuclear transmutations could release energy. Attempts to interpret “cold fusion” outcomes in terms of LENR are in [8,9]; numerous references to this subject can be found in [10].

Our analysis has revealed a new source of energy in the Universe, the so-called hot-clocking energy [1]. The hot-clocking effect is an extraction of impetuses from clock pulses driving a given system (see [11]). In the case of the Universe, this system is the holographic mechanism with indispensable clock pulses of the periodic wave trains of the reference beam.

The subsequent Section 2 describes a cellular automaton model underlying the physical world and the Holographic Universe appearing on top of it. The resulting concept of the physical world as an Internet of Things unifies the essential properties of the Universe. The emergence of the hypothesis on the new type of energy – the hot-clocking energy – merely follows the traditional pattern of fundamental physics discovery, like Maxwell’s deduction about the existence of the electromagnetic waves: first, a new theory combining different facts and notions has to be formulated; then a novel entity of the physical world can be deduced from such a theory.

The actual ways of extracting hot-clocking energy are addressed in Section 3. This extraction is attained with the method of parametric resonance. Two settings for mesoscopic objects are considered. Application of this method to linear polymer structures translates into orderly mechanical motion that can activate biological objects, or artificial muscles engines. Application of this method to bulky crystalline structures transforms into chaotic thermal motion of the “excess heat” attributed to “cold fusion.” A special attention is paid to the conditions of the “excess heat” irreproducibility, which is a typical feature for various mesoscopic phenomena, presumably, due power-law flickering. Stabilization of may be somehow managed catalyzers and SHF irradiation.

As long as “cold fusion” explorations really establish an “excess heat” effect, this discovery indeed presents “a good experiment” that “is forever”. It has to be clearly stated that the astonishing “excess heat” generation has nothing to do with nuclear fusion, so judgments on this effect from the standpoint of nuclear physics may be irrelevant. In our view, the “excess heat” originates from a surmised “new physics” associated with a peculiar specificity of mesoscopic phenomena. This subject matter deals with a new source of energy in the kT range of molecular motions rather then with particle transformations in the mc2 range. The considered “new physics” sets off on our interpretation of quantum mechanics [12]. Remarkably, it provides the only available operational explication to the most incomprehensible property of quantum non-locality.

The concluding Section 4 considers the implications of the suggested theory for the anticipated practical developments of the energy apparatuses stimulated by the Rossi-Focardi experiments.

2. Physical Universe as an Internet of Things: unification of information, matter, and energy

-- It's not my fault, I was taught that way -- Everyone was, but why did you have to be first in class?
Shvarts, “The Dragon”

Energy is the ability to move matter. To a given thing this ability must have been dispensed by another thing, so in certain proportions this ability is conserved. Tracing back would bring us to the prime cause. For the physical Universe this gets to the infrastructure of the material world. We have suggested the possibility for a new source of energy due to the “hot-clocking” effect associated with the infrastructure of the physical world [1,14]. As have been indicated above, this effect is an extraction of impetuses from a succession of clock pulses (see [11])

Nowadays, the concept of information is gaining importance over the long-dated firmly indoctrinated idea that matter and energy are what lies in the foundation of Nature [15]. Said John Archibald Wheeler, one of the pioneers of this novel insight: “The physical world is made of information with energy and matter as incidentals.” We have developed a cellular automaton approach that resolutely demonstrates this concept (Fig.1).

Fig. 1

Recognizing the Physical world as an Internet of Things

Quantum mechanics behavior – Interactive Holography

Biological information control – Cloud Computing

Biological motion actuation – Hot-clocking Energy

Our model named CAETERIS (Cellular Automaton EThER InfraStructure) has been presented in several publications (see [16,17,18], and [19] with a recapitulating appendix). Portraying elementary material formations as “excitons, the cellular automaton ether constitutes an absolute infrastructure of the physical world, which in accordance with Lorentz-Poincare’s interpretation of relativity does exist but is imperceptible. Thus, Newton argued that a search for the absolute space was neither senseless nor hopeless, but merely difficult [20].

A concrete implementation of a cellular automaton model that can actually work, not just present an abstract mathematical simulation, needs a robust fault-tolerant distributed clock. Such a straight requirement removes any arbitrariness in the problem of finding the primitive cellular automaton rule of Nature. Astoundingly, but this approach immediately solves such an exorbitant problem. As expressed in [21], the whole richness of the physical world condenses in a plain sentence: “All physical phenomena are different aspects of the high-level description of distributed processes of mutual synchronization in a network of digital clocks”. To begin with, the “excitons” of the CAETERIS model exactly correspond to the spectrum of stable elementary particles of matter. Further, all the accompanying properties of the physical world follow as well: the upper bound on the propagation pace – the speed of light limit, appearance of antimatter – dual solutions having an opposite sense of rotation, slight asymmetry between matter and antimatter – consequence of the arbitration protocol, and much more.

Cellular automaton activities do not comprise the concept motion as relocation in a physical space. In substantiation of the paradoxical stance of Zeno of Elea, these activities portray motion as reconfigurations of objects “depicted” by the cellular automaton states. Material objects “depicted” by the traveling waves solutions follow the law of inertia as long as they get their “reconfigurational” uniform motion capacity for “free” from the underlying cellular automaton mechanism. Thus, just by maintaining their shape material objects acquire kinetic energy, m·v2/2 that can be transferred by contact to other material objects preserving their integrity. As material synchro formations undergo transformations, they fall apart into ingredients that acquire from the cellular automaton clocking mechanism greater amounts of energy. The magnitude of this energy released with the disintegration processes correspond to the m·c2.

All the energy of the physical world ultimately originates from the external driving clock pulses of the machinery of mutual synchronization. On top of the cellular automaton infrastructure there appears a secondary construction of the holographic mechanism of the Universe. Holography is a popular theoretical physics contrivance dating back to D. Bohm (see [22]). Theoretical physics, ordinarily, does not address the realization problems for this intricate technical construction. In our model, the emerging holography explicitly includes all the necessary operational componentry, particularly, the secondary driving clock pulses from the wave trains of the reference beam at the 1011 Hz repetition rate [23]. Basically, this holographic construction exercises control over the material world at the molecular level. In contrast to the disintegration character of the elementary m·c2 impacts, the hot -clocking energy comes out in the range of k·T well suited for sustainable operations with mesoscopic molecular aggregates.

One may see a connection of the notion of the hot-clocking effect with the renowned ideas by N.A. Kozyrev, whose dynamic picture of the world includes a curious possibility for generating energy from “active flow” of time [24]. Ostensibly similar, our outlook is somehow different: physical time arises at the level of material formations as a periodic process involving material objects, like a chronometer. The cellular automaton clock does not produce the flow of time; the clocking pulses just enable the flow of time among other physical processes, including the original creation of the ultimate mass–energy.

The mass–energy in the Universe is estimated 4×1069 joules [25]. Of those, the face of the Earth receives from the Sun each second about 1.74×1017 joules. Human civilization consumes about 15 Terawatts, i.e. 1.5·1013 joules per second. The energy consumed by the biomass on Earth is, very roughly, about the same order of magnitude. The main point of this paper is that besides the original stockpile of the ultimate mass–energy the Universe also has an independent source of energy at the molecular level (producing, in particular, all biochemical motilities) - a continuous influx from the holographic clocking. This energy is abundant and sufficient for the total needs of human civilization.

Purposeful collective behavior of the material objects requires combining information control with energy actuation. The holographic mechanism of the Universe allows addressing the most profound enigma of Nature related to the differences between dead and living matter. The content–addressable memory of the holographic mechanism forms a cloud memory. So, biological information processing related to the living matter can be considered as Cloud Computing [26,27]. This leads to the idea of the organization of the physical world as an “Internet of Things” (IOT) [28]. With the prevalence of modern high technology there are no doubts in the effectiveness of such an arrangement. Other designs for the Universe are simply not workable.

Small particles under immediate holographic responses exhibit the strangeness of quantum behavior that is a result of the interactive holography setup [12]. Every micro-event in the Universe is recorded at the strobbing frequency 1011 Hz [23], and the immediate feedbacks from these recordings create such a setup. Of paramount significance is the emergence of quantum entanglement – instantaneous non-signaling correlation of distant events [12]. The suggested model of the Universe as an Internet of Things presents the only available operational description of this incredible property of nonlocality, which is beyond any traditional physical paradigm undermining the very essence of our perception. In terms of computer science, nonlocality interactions appear “through common memory” rather than “through message passing”; global processing by holographic slices naturally interrelates distant objects over the entire Universe.

Numerous mysterious effects in the physical world may look as if a result of supernatural intervention. But, in fact, they are nothing more than another facet of global activities in the Internet of Things (IOT). With the suggested approach it could be possible to build up the desired Theory of Everything (TOE). Stating simply, TOE ≡ IOT. The concept of the “Internet of Things” as a methodological tool was not available to the physicists of previous generations. Nowadays, the “Ivy League” physics roams over the blind alley. Shifting the paradigm to information is a necessity. “How could it have been otherwise?”

3. Amplification of mesoscopic mechanical and thermal motions with parametric resonance

One day man will connect his apparatus to the very wheel work of the universe… and the very forces that motivate the planets in their orbits and cause them to rotate will rotate his own machinery
N. Tesla

In our view, the mechanical energy for biological locomotion is supplied by the hot-clocking effect [1]. And the “excess heat” in what is named “cold fusion” is due to the same effect as well. Likewise, some other peculiar physical phenomena, such as sonoluminescence and ball lightning that also show an unexplainable “excess heat” can be treated in a similar way. According to J. Schwinger [29], there might be “a mechanism that transfers energy of microscopic entities into kinetic energy of a macroscopic body" (mesoscopic! S.B.). A guiding analogy is the renowned Mössbauer effect, where a lattice absorbs the recoil energy of gamma decays. Our consideration suggests, however, that in the indicated phenomena energy is not plainly transferred between material things, but, in fact, it is extracted from the underlying infrastructure that drives the physical world.

The pushes of clock impetuses on mesoscopic molecular aggregates needs concentration by means of parametric resonance (Fig.2). While minor formations are involved in interactive holography of quantum mechanics [12], the parametric amplification for mesoscopic aggregates is associated with quantum entanglement of motion patterns [1,12,13,14]. The parametric amplification can be arranged in two ways: explicitly - through direct triggering at 1011 Hz, or implicitly - by autoparametric self-excitations from the accompaniment of the appropriate conformational changes.

Fig.2

On the extraction of energy through parametric resonance

According to [30], feeding and metabolism furnish “negative entropy”, not energy. In other words, having a meal is “maintenance” rather than “refueling”. The amount of chemical energy obtained with the food does not seem sufficient for the work the organisms perform. Most pronouncedly this controversy pops up for insects. Thus, some beetles would need daily intake of food twice their own mass. The article [31] set forth an observation that “in studies of insect energetics the completed budget rarely balances”. Interesting observations are presented in [32,33]. Mysteriously, the force generated by the muscular motors of running, swimming, and flying animals conforms to a universal value dependent only on muscle mass. The force output of the muscles of runners, swimmers and fliers with surprisingly little variation is about 60 newtons per kilogram. In our concept, this remarkable result on the universal value of muscle force (indeed exactly “force”, not “energy”!) gets a natural explanation: the universal value of force in different organisms is not determined by varying biochemical circumstances, but is due to the same general influence from the infrastructure of the physical world.

So, biological locomotion should obtain energy beyond food intake. It was shown that contraction of a muscle comes from interaction of actomyosin – a complex formed of two proteins, actin and myosin – with ATP and ions (Fig.3) [34]. Myosin is responsible for the elementary act of contraction, but how the energy from a phosphate bond ~P of ATP moves myosin is not clear. Two questions are stressed in [34]: what is the source of energy that incites ATP and how does this energy, in a form of a phosphate bond ~P, or whatever, exercise a very particular precision action of compaction of protomyosins.

Fig. 3

Schematic representation of a myosin molecule

Possible rearrangements of protomyosins in contraction

Both points are immediately addressed within the suggested scheme. First, this scheme employs a continuous source of plain incoming mechanical energy; second, the distributed parametric resonance allows for purposive micromanipulations of the molecular components.

A rough sketch for obtaining mechanical motion from the hot-clocking effect is outlined in Fig. 4. This scheme contains a piston imposed in a certain frame, say, a kind of a cylinder. The piston is attached to polymer strands imitating muscle tissue. These polymer strands are under parametric resonance influences either directly from a ~1011 Hz irradiation or indirectly from autoparametric resonance activities of the collection of strands. This arrangement is targeted on alternate coordinated contractions and relaxations of the “muscle” strands to produce reciprocating motion. Then, an engine composed of a set of pistons is attached to a regular crankshaft.

Fig. 4

An outline for an “artificial muscle” engine using hot-clocking energy

Taking the muscle mimicking literately, one “Horse Power” can be packed in about 1 m3. For the sake of simplification let us equate 1HP ≈ ¾ KW ~ 1 KW and assume that all the auxiliary equipment fits in the same volume as well. So, an aggregate in a volume of 10m x 10m x 10m could produce ~1 MW of mechanical power.

The scheme of “artificial muscle” applied to linear structures launches precisely back-and-forth mechanical motion. When parametric resonance operations are applied to bulk structures, like e.g. crystals, they transform clocking impetuses into a sporadic motion obtaining energy of lesser quality in the form of heating and bubbling. There is evidence that the excess heat is actually released from small spots in very-high-energy densities. According to [6], the objective is to achieve command of the material science and fabrication techniques to allow these heat-generating spots to be engineered at will. With our theory, investigating how different ways of autoparametric resonance incitement spread the hot-clocking places over the working substance could be useful to this end.

A scheme of crystalline interactions in Rossi-Focardi device, which uses nickel powder and hydrogen gas, is illustrated in Fig. 5. This device is assumed to operate on a chemically assisted Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR). Despite the popular favorable attitude, the LENR approach is usually considered insufficient in various aspects to explain the “excess heat” outcome justifying the appeal to a “new physics”.

Fig. 5

A scheme of the Rossi-Focardi energy reactor

In connection to the “hot-clocking” energy explanation of the “excess heat” effect, we would like to draw attention to the following distinctive points.

(1) Accompanying nuclear reactions

Nuclear radiation is not an essential factor in relation to the “excess heat” production. Such a radiation may or may not be stimulated by the hot-clocking activities. In essence, nuclear processes have nothing to do with molecular movements induced by parametric resonance. Some minuscule nuclear events might deem to appear as a byproduct of the molecular movements, but, actually, this is unlikely.

(2) Irreproducibility of the “excess heat” experiments

Most experiments in “cold fusion” have shown if a trivial but scientifically meaningful level of “excess heat” [6]. One of the characteristic features of the “excess heat” experiments in connection to “cold fusion” is instability and irreproducibility. By and large, this casts uncertainty on the whole business. In our consideration, such an uncertainty may be related to the lability of the autoparametric mode of excitation. Parametric resonance stimulated by direct application of electromagnetic SHF should be free from this aggravation. Thus, a robust “excess heat” generation under an appropriate electromagnetic irradiation would present a crucial test for the suggested concept.

(3) Consolidation of the autoparametric resonance

A straightforward way of stabilizing the “excess heat” experiments is to make the parametric resonance operations more dependable. In polymer strands, this is achieved with suitable macromolecule configurations. In bulky inhomogeneous structures, the autoparametric mode of the resonance can be stimulated by adding a catalyzer, most effectively, some organic substance with corresponding characteristic spectrum of conformational oscillations. This could be the key factor for a drastic increase of the output power, what, probably, was done in the Rossi-Focardi Energy Catalyzer. The conjecture is that with an introduction of a catalyzer the distribution of the heat generating spots over the working substance of the device should become more uniform.

(4) Long-term reliability

The direct parametric stimulation is a sort of physical quantum process that does not substantially tax the holographic memory system of the Universe. The autoparametric stimulation somehow involves macromolecules and, hence, changes the contents of Universe’s memory at a greater scale, like biological Cloud Computing. Macromolecules feedbacks are richer enabling access and reactions from the past memory (consider a suggestive report on “cosmic habituation” in [35]). Thus, a system under autoparametric control, either a mechanical engine or an “excess heat” apparatus, could undergo a senescence process (in a software sense) similarly to “wear out” of living systems. This would decisively affect systems maintainability, but could be taken care of by a corresponding service scheduling of energy generating devices.

(5) Specificity of mesoscopic effects and power-law flickering

The surmised holographic mechanism of the Universe offers a surprising possibility of extracting hot-clocking energy by mesoscopic objects from the impetuses of the periodic wave trains of the reference beam in the operational arrangement of parametric resonance. Besides the possibility of extracting energy these kinds of specific conditions may reveal certain other phenomena associated with mesoscopic objects.

Two opposite categories of objects at micro and macro level show completely different types of behavior. Quantum mechanics behavior of micro objects is a result of an interactive holography scheme [12]. Classical mechanics behavior of macro objects comes from the intrinsic law of inertia incorporated in the cellular automaton mechanism, so the dynamics of macro objects is related to the second derivative of their coordinates.

One could expect that mesoscopic objects should by some means combine the characteristic features of quantum and classical mechanics. Yet this is not what happens – unforeseeably the mesoscopic behavior exhibits completely different qualitative traits unrelated to either of the opposite cases. Thus, another physics is needed (see [36]).

A queer example presents a commonly encountered effect of blinking nanoscale light emitters: “A wide variety of natural and artificial nanoscopic light emitters, from fluorescent proteins to semiconductor nanostructures, display a blinking behavior. The emission (on) and no- emission (off) periods have a duration that varies from less than a millisecond to several minutes and more. The probability of occurrence of the on and off times is characterized by a power law, which is a typical sign of high complexity and is fundamentally different from what is expected from the quantum jump mechanism of fluorescence blinking predicted at the dawn of quantum mechanics” [37].

Correspondingly, in a hot-clocking parametric resonance embodiment, Brownian motion for some atypical particles, such those of organic nature, may show a behavior different from that associated with traditional physics. Thus, unlike the motion of inanimate particles, the chaotic movements of bacteria could be applied to continuously rotate asymmetrically-shaped gears that could potentially be used as energy sources [38].

Variables with a power-law distribution usually pinpoint highly complex processes behind the scene leading to the famous Zipf- Pareto principle applicable to many fields – a remarkable log-linear pattern in rank-size dependence. Examples include: income distribution, cities populations, earthquakes strengths, Bose–Einstein clusters, traits of chaotic dynamics etc. Fluorescence blinking obeys the same power-law, in which average on and off times diverge. Thus, repeated measurements of time -averaged intensity under the same physical conditions do not yield a reproducible result (!!) [37]. Various ligand molecules can modify quantum dots surface affecting the length and frequency of the on and off times. This could stabilize the Energy Catalyzer. Importantly, surface structure and geometry are critical for exciting nickel powder particles [39]; this may be affected, as well, by absolute positioning of a specimen. Also, employing SHF or more elaborate schemes with intermediate heating steps might be needed for practical energy generation.

4. Conclusion. Hot-clocking vs. cold fusion

In the time of crisis philosophy becomes an applied science
V.S.Stepin

A widespread viewpoint that impending energy crisis can be resolved with the existing alternative technologies provided massive investments of efforts and capital is overly optimistic. Characteristically, the biofuels technology, which is considered the most workable and promising for the energy production, turn out to be unsuccessful [40].

Effective resolution of the energy crisis desperately needs a breakthrough in fundamental science. The issue is crucial and urgent – to avoid harmful consequences an adequate solution should be put into practice in about a decade.

Our conception of the informational infrastructure of the physical world reveals a new source of energy. All energy as the ability to move matter ultimately comes from the clock pulses driving the underlying machinery of the physical world. On top of it, the secondary construction of the holographic Universe acquires such driving clock pulses from periodic reference beam wave trains generated at 1011 Hz rate. The energy from this secondary construction is extracted due to hot-clocking effect by mesoscopic molecular structures using parametric resonance. The obtained hot-clocking energy is responsible for actuation of all kinds of motions of macromolecules in biological systems.

The parametric resonance operation applied to linear polymer strands provides energy for biological muscles. Such an approach can be used for constructing an artificial muscle for a mechanical engine with orderly reciprocating motion [2].

In comparison to linear polymer strands bulky crystalline structures do not contain prearranged ordering, so such voluminous structures can be regarded as “damaged” muscle tissues. Thus, when hot-clocking energy extraction is applied to bulky crystalline structures then instead of a precise mechanical motion this brings about a chaotic motion of heat producing energy of lesser quality. That is the mysterious effect of “excess heat” observed in numerous “cold fusion” experiments [10]. With such an outlook, it appears that this “excess heat” effect has nothing to do with any nuclear reactions.

The Rossi-Focardi Energy Catalyzer device, presumably, has achieved a better performance than other “cold fusion” experiments. To a certain extent, it has been able to overcome the notorious instability in the “cold fusion” processes by using a special type of a catalyzer. This point is especially addressed in the paper, and various conjectures can be tested experimentally. The suggested mechanism of power-law instability presents one of the main issues in the practical design of the “excess heat” apparatuses.

Energy Catalyzer can be definitely effective for large installations. What types of the devices can be useful for compact engines, like for cars in transportation, at this moment is not clear. Yet the abundance of cheap clean energy could make liquid nitrogen easily available, and transportation problems can be solved with this “cryogenic fuel” (see [14]).


Citations

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[38] Edwin Cartlidge, "In a spin: random motion of bacteria could drive a tiny rotor" http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/37113

[39] E. Campari, G. Fasano, S. Focardi, G. Lorusso, V. Gabbani, V. Montalbano, F. Piantelli, C. Stanghini, and S. Veronesi, "Photon and particle emission, heat production and surface transformation in Ni-H system", Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, 2004, Marseille, France http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/campariegphotonandp.pdf

[40] David Biello, "The false promise of biofuels", Scientific American, pp. 59-65, August 2011

1

[1] S. Berkovich, "Generation of clean energy by applying parametric resonance to quantum nonlocality clocking", Technical Proceedings of the 2011 CTSI Clean Technology and Sustainable Industries Conference and Expo, June 13-16, 2011, Boston, MA, pp. 212-215

(see also: http://www.ct-si.org/publications/proceedings/procs/Cleantech2011/4/705)

2

[2] Simon Berkovich, "Method for generating clean energy by parametric resonance through hot-clocking effect in quantum nonlocality", Patent disclosure: GWU 011-0005-Berkovich, 09/21/2010 Provisional application filed on 01/06/2011, serial no. 61/430,236

3

[3] Energy Catalyzer, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_Catalyzer

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[4] Andrea Rossi, "Method and apparatus for carrying out nickel and hydrogen exothermal reaction", Patent Application, US 2011/0005506 A1, Jan 13, 2011

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[5] Cold fusion, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_fusion

 
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About the Author 

Simon Berkovich
Professor Berkovich recieved MS in Applied Physics from Moscow Phys-Tech Institute and PhD in Computer Science from USSR Academy of Sciences

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