Article in Arts / Communication Arts / Mass Communication
One of a series of "TV and You" research papers I wrote while studying electronic media at the University of Hawaii, Manoa. Mass media has a direct causal influence on homelessness and many other problems in our society like violence, drugs, etc. I will reference it in my next "NO Shame" article
<p>In 1951, the beginning of a cultural colonization took place in Hawaii that went largely unnoticed by the people of the Islands</p>

Television As A Tool In The Corporate Psychological Colonization of Hawaii

By Sanford L. Hill


On December 1, 1951, the first regular TV programming began in Hawaii marking the start of a cultural colonization that went largely unnoticed by the people of the Islands. There were no Gatling guns at Iolani Palace for this new revolution; in fact, no force or threats are needed, as this new type of “psychological colonization” appears benign and harmless. Yet, this new type of colonization has the power to affect the life of every person in Hawaii, and continues to be an important factor in the physiological, psychological, cultural and social behavior of Hawaii’s people of to this day. Psychological colonization is most effectively done using the electronic mass media we are all connect to. The most effective electronic mass media programming tool used so far is the television. So, how do large corporations use television as a tool to help colonize a multi-ethnic culture with a rich traditional history located in the middle of the Pacific?

“In Hawaii, intelligentsia and students of media and communications need to unpack the dense discursive traditions and assumptions that inform and naturalize film and television products in the region, for colonization is as much a psychological phenomenon, as it is territorial, political and aesthetic.”


There are a number of different tools used by colonizers to control people’s behavior and actions. Among these tools are weapons, religion, and money, all of which have been used by the western colonizers of Hawaii. Television, like a gun, can be used for many purposes; one of them is corporate colonization. Television plays an important part in corporate colonization by allowing for the education of people, from a very early age, in a way that is pleasant and unknown to them. There were approximately 398,500 households using television in Hawaii in 2002, which mean virtually all Hawaii households have a TV.

“Corporate colonization” is a term used to describe the colonization of cultures and societies by international corporations for their own benefit and profit. A good description of corporate colonization and how it works can be found in Stanley Deetz book “Democracy In An Age of Corporate Colonization”. According to Deetz, “Modern corporate encroachment into non-working life and transformation of other institutions might properly be called a “colonizing” activity”. He says that major national and international corporations have replaced religious, familial, educational and community institutions in the production of meaning, personal identity, values, knowledge and reasoning.

Many modern corporations are bigger and have more power and resources than the nation-states they colonize, and are often not accountable to anyone but themselves. Corporate colonization may be closer to feudal control than democracy. We all know from the news that in the United States corporations have extensive control of politicians and legislation through lobbing, campaign funding and out right bribery. National and local news has also reported on politician’s extensive, and expensive, use of commercial TV to get elected.

One only needs to look around to observe how corporate culture and influence has penetrated almost every aspect of American life. It appears that most people like the lifestyle benefits of corporate colonization. But, are they sacrificing their lives, children, environment, culture and future, knowingly or unknowingly, for the cars, fashions, plasma TVs and other lifestyle choices they are being educated by television to want? It is interesting to note that both large, international corporations and television have grown dramatically in power and influence over the last 50 years. I do not believe this is a coincidence. Whether corporate colonization is good or bad for the people of Hawaii is a highly debated topic and not a subject of this paper.

Some the information in this paper comes from my twenty years of professional television production experience on Maui, Oahu and in LA. This includes working in creative development and production management on national TV commercials, movies, TV programs and music videos at GMT Studios in LA, as well as, producing, directing, writing and editing, numerous television productions in Hawaii. This experience has given me an understanding how TV affects people physiologically, psychologically, culturally and socially. The following are a few basic facts about television I have learned from both experience and academic research that may seem quite obvious and harmless. One must look at these facts from the point of view of a corporate tool that helps with a colonization process in Hawaii that is very complex, subtle and effective.

1. A TV program, such as “American Idol”, have been be viewed by as much as fifty percent of Hawaii’s households with TVs, at the same relative time (8pm), in a generally similar fashion. All of the viewers receive the exactly same psychological and cultural message and form a “collective memory” of it.

2. People tend to choose the types of TV programs that reinforce their interest, beliefs and lifestyles. If you like sports, there are many channels devoted to it. The same is true of women’s programs, news, shopping, kid’s shows, music television, and dramas. People are somewhat unaware of the contents of channels that they are not interested in (adults usually do not watch children’s shows). This “market segmentation” allows for the effective colonization of different types of people in a way that appeals to them.

3. People generally believe that television is “just harmless entertainment” and does not affect their values, needs, actions, environment or future. It is much easier to colonize people who are not aware of it. No one questions it.

4. Hawaii’s people, like the rest of the nation, are currently watching an average 3.8 hours of television a day according to AC Nielsen Research, and reported widely in the national news. This is an average, some people watch much more TV, a few don’t watch at all. Also, television viewing is ranked 3rd in activities that Americans do most. Only sleep and work/school rank higher.

5. Television is not an accurate refection of reality. It does not reflect the real time or space of its content, and offers a highly controlled, myopic view, of the world. Yet, many people in Hawaii can’t help but get much of their information about the world around them from different TV programs they watch. Even people who do not watch much TV are affected, and informed, by people who do. The corporate colonizers only need to control enough people to obtain a critical mass of favorable behavior.

6. Television is somewhat hypnotic, and usually viewed in a meditative or relaxed brainwave pattern (Alpha or Delta). TV viewing uses the “recognition” mental process of non-analytical observation

7. Research has shown that television is experienced in the same way by different demographic groups. Yet, TV affects people differently based on the biological, psychological and cultural condition of the viewer, This “X factor” can have unintended consequences for the viewer like violence, obesity, depression and may produce social unrest and backlash. This is much like the unintended effects of disease or corruption in other forms of colonization. TV does allow the colonizer the ability to quickly distract, redirect and reprogram the colonized subjects.

8. Researchers have found television to be addictive based on formally defined substance dependence criteria. It is very effective to have people addicted to the tool being used to colonize them. It also helps that people are naturally in denial about addictive behavior.

9. The type of television that is used to psychologically colonize people is expensive to make and distribute, and is primarily done by large, multinational, corporations in line with their own colonizing (commercial) interest. Commercial TV (any network, including cable, supported primarily by advertisement) programs are entirely paid for by the corporation advertising in them. Recently, people have been able buy and download network TV programs for $1.99 each. This gives some idea of what watching a show on television would cost without advertising.

10. The only reason these commercial programs exist is to deliver peoples minds to the advertiser in a condition that allows their commercials to work (get people to do something). We must assume TV commercials are very effective at achieving their goal by the 100’s of billions of dollars spent on creating and airing the TV programs, as well as from all the research in consumer behavior. Corporate colonization, like all colonization, must get a favorable return on its investment.


The introduction and use of TV happened very quickly in Hawaii, as it did in the rest of the United States. In 1950 there was no television in Hawaii. By 1953, according to one survey, 46% of Hawaii’s families had a TV and an additional 23% were going to buy one that year. Three years after TV’s introduction, over 2/3rds of Hawaii’s population was watching commercial corporate programming from 3 national mainland networks (ABC, NBC,CBS) everyday. This survey also showed that Asian and part Hawaiian people purchased televisions at a significantly higher per capita rate than Caucasians.

Hawaii in the 1950’s was still a very isolated place. As a child living in rural Kane’ohe, I remember a place with no freeways, tunnels, shopping centers, and high rises. I can also remember sitting around the black and white TV with the other neighborhood kids of many different ethnic backgrounds, watching what life was like on the mainland, which we all thought was cool. Hawaii seem so backwards compared to what we saw on television.

Myself, and the rest of Hawaii’s people were taught through programs like “Leave it to Beaver”, “Ed Sullivan”, “The Evening News” and other white, American middle class shows, the good life of corporate consumer culture. The TV programs showed Hawaii’s people the corporate products and lifestyles that would, according to the programs, make them happy, bring them success and protect them. The medium of television encouraged the corporate consumer culture.

To help incorporate the new State of Hawaii into the American based corporate system, and vise-versa, a number of national television drama series have been set in Hawaii, the first being “Hawaiian Eye”. This series began the year Hawaii became the 50th State and continued for four years. The TV shows heroes were well-off, educated, technological white people who were helped by ethic local people who admired and counted on them to keep the peace. More importantly, it showed a style of life where corporate products are essential. It is well known that many people in Hawaii have, or will, eventually die from using products such as alcohol and tobacco promoted on these early television shows. These TV series continued with “Hawaii 50”, “Magnum PI”, “One West Waikiki, “Jake and the Fat Man”, ‘Baywatch Hawaii”, and most recently, “North Shore” and “Hawaii”. It is logical to assume that the positive portrayal of Hawaii’s militarized and tourist based economy in these programs helped some Hawaii residents accept and become comfortable with the development it brought. It also showed people around the world an image of Hawaii as part of the corporate colony of America.

Since the advent of TV in Hawaii, many people have chosen to live a localized version of what they were watching on TV. Of course, the goods, services and lifestyles we were watching on TV cost money, lots of money. Soon many of our parents were working two jobs; there were tunnels though the Ko’olau’s, shopping centers full of corporate products and a giant new airport to bring in tourist to the new high-rise hotels. The people of Hawaii consistently elected politicians that promised jobs that would allow people to afford the local version of the “American Dream” they were watching on TV.

It is important not to confuse corporate colonization with the United States government and people. The rest of America also appears to have been colonized by international corporations during the last fifty years. By controlling the US, these corporations could use America’s resources and military might to expand and protect their colonial empire. International corporations have no allegiance to any nation, and in fact, use them against one another for their own gain as witnessed by such trends as outsourcing and globalization.

Hawaii, being part of the United States since the introduction of TV, has been subjected to the same intense corporate TV programming as the rest of the nation. Does corporate TV programming designed primarily for mainland viewers; work with the same effectiveness on the multi-cultural, ethically diverse people of Hawaii who have different historical traditions? Based on observation of current corporate presence, profit and influence in Hawaii, the answer would have to be yes. What are some of the results of fifty years of this psychological colonization?

Fifty years of intensive corporate TV viewing in Hawaii appears to have played a great role in assimilating Hawaii’s collective memory into the national collective memory, which has been formed in much the same way. Collective memory describes how symbolic production and social reproduction is controlled within the social world. Symbols in television are largely selected and controlled by the corporate economic system that owns the medium. It is in the best interest of the corporate monopoly that controls television to only produce symbols and messages that support the political, economic, social and lifestyle goals of the corporate colonizers. It is however, the local culture that supplies the classification taxonomy, which structures the perception of television symbols. All television symbols must be confronted by local perceptual bias.

In Hawaii there would appear to be a major problem using TV for psychological colonization, as there are so many different cultural, racial and ethnic perceptual biases. The current medium of television has a number of ways of overwhelming perceptual and other psychological defenses of all types of people. How this is done is an important factor in understanding the psychological colonization of Hawaii.

“In Reading Television, media theorists Fiske and Hartley note that television exploits the structures which the audience uses to "categorize, and so make sense of," the surrounding world. Television messages are decoded by the audience according to culturally generated codes that constrain the perception of the individual viewer. Television symbolically reflects the values and relationships beneath the surface of society and presents us with our "collective selves”.

When Thirty million people (1/10 of America’s population, including Hawaii) have the same experience at the same time, a vast cultural learning event takes place. All the people who watch a program like “American Idol” form a cultural collective self that can relate to one another. Those thirty Million people become a powerful force and what they “learn” from the program, including the commercials, manifest itself in different ways in their lives and in their society.

In Hawaii, our collective self can be seen in the shopping centers, sports stadiums, freeways, and Universities. In all these areas, large corporations are harvesting money from the Hawaii people they have colonized. It appears that the corporate consumers driven, materialistic, capitalistic, lifestyle is reinforced by the TV. People see the products, services and lifestyles on television, then experience them in reality. I believe the illusion becomes mixed up with reality in the mind. Based on my TV production experience, I do not believe this is an accident.

Remember, many people trust television and do not think it affects them much. TV’s non-cognitive learning experience without critical thinking could be defined as “programming”, which just happens to be the term used to describe television programs as a whole.

This non-cognitive learning affects everyone differently based on the genetic, biological, environmental, and other variables at the time of viewing. This means that some people in Hawaii may find reinforcement to buy a product; others may find reinforcement to cheat on their wives. Also, the non-cognitive nature of television means people will not always consciously associate their actions with the programming and TV medium they have learned it from.

The people who make TV programs, including commercials, are experts in the psychological “Dynamics of Perception”. This includes “Perceptual Selection”, Perceptual Organization”, “Perceptual Interpretation” and other perceptual processes and how they relate to the consumer. Television’s message goes into the mind’s vast sub-conscious area and mixes with all the other things people in Hawaii have learned in life. This would appear to help make the corporate cultural message blend with other learned cultural traditions and knowledge on an equal basis. This is reinforced by the presence and use of corporate produces and services in Hawaii.

Anyone who watches television knows how easy it is to get “sucked” into a program, especially, a program one can identify with somehow. This identification could come from real or imagined ways that people subconsciously view themselves and their surroundings, which may, in part, be created or reinforced by watching television. I believe, that the line between the fantasy world and real one becomes blurred when viewing television.

This of course works well for the commercials, which show people corporate products that could make that fantasy world real. The commercials blend seamlessly with, and are really part of, the TV program. The models look much like the actors, and the characters and settings are similar. There are ads for medication that will take away physical and mental problems, beauty aids that can transform viewers into one of the fantasy characters they are watching. Appliances, cars, services, which, if bought and used, will make the viewers fantasy into reality. In some cases the encoding is so strong that purchasing a product or service convinces people that their life is better, even when nothing has really changed.

The one main direct effect of television that can be easily seen is the fact that when a person views TV, they are not doing other social, cultural, or personal activities. This is very important. If the average person in Hawaii spends 3.8 hours of each day consuming television, that is almost four hours they are not participating in traditional cultural, social, family, community, or educational activities. If Hawaii’s average TV viewing time was cut in half, the average person in Hawaii would gain almost 28 hours a week to participate in real life. It would also eliminate 28 hours of corporate programming. A change like that would be very noticeable.

Because much of what happens in the television learning process happens sub-consciously, it is difficult to connect actual human action to specific television stimulus. There is very little scientific research documenting a cause and effect relationship between specific cultural change and the introduction of television. One reasons for this is the difficultly in finding areas in the world where some form of commercial TV does not exist in order to form a base line on behavior before the introduction of television. This is especially true since the advent of direct satellite TV.

Anne F Becker PhD did one of the best studies on how TV changes cultural values of Pacific Islanders entitled “Eating Behaviors and Attitudes Following Prolonged Exposure to Television Among Ethnic Fijian Adolescent Girls”. This study was conducted in the Nadroga province of Fiji in 1995; one month before commercial western broadcast television had been introduced to the area, and then again in1998. The area did have western magazines, newspapers, radios, and videotape movies when the study was started. This is one of the few studies done on the possible effects of commercial television on ethic cultures in the Pacific. The study was ground breaking. It shows that 3 years after television was introduced the idealized body image of the subjects had changed and that some of the subjects had developed eating disorders previously not known to the culture. This study gives solid evidence that the introduction of television did influence and change this Pacific Island culture. The data collection and data analysis methods were very good and left little doubt that watching television had changed many of the subject’s perception of how they should look and act. It leaves open the main question of which aspects of people’s behavior are directly linked to television viewing in Hawaii? This question has never been formally studied.

This paper has not covered non-corporate sponsored television, or even local television in Hawaii, because there is comparatively very little of it, and what there is appears to have little affect on corporate psychological colonization here. Large international corporations such as Time/Warner (Oceanic Cable), General Electric (NBC), Viacom (CBS), Disney (ABC) and Rupert Murdock (FOX and Direct TV Satellite) own the cable/satellite systems or lease the broadcast airwaves people need to receive television in Hawaii. PBS Hawaii and Hawaii public access channels are the only places where one can find non-corporate controlled TV programming, though PBS programming is primarily made with corporate funds of one type or another and has corporate ads preceding most of their programs. Also, the hours spent watching these channels in Hawaii are very small compared to those spent watching commercial TV, based on information I have received from local cable and TV stations when buying TV air time.

Another problem facing non-commercial television producers is maintaining a “production value” that is comparable to what the viewing audience expects. As a television producer, I know that from early childhood the people of Hawaii, as elsewhere, have been conditioned to equate high production value with believably, reliability, and good entertainment. “Barney”, “Sesame Street” and most cartoons have high production value. This is a conditioning that is mostly sub-conscious. When people watch programs with low production quality, they sub-consciously feel that it is somewhat amateurish, and more like home videos. For this reason, high production value remains a dominating factor in deciding what type of programming will be placed in front of large TV audiences. From experience, I know most corporate programming used for psychological colonization in Hawaii has a high production value. This difference in production value can be seen by comparing the production quality of programming on public access channels, or OC 16, to mainstream commercial network programming made in Hawaii like “Lost”.

The question begging to be answered is how important is production value to viewer choice in Hawaii? According commercial cost and AC Nielsen Ratings, local Hawaii people choose to watch programs like “Friends” and “Seinfeld”, which do not really reflect Hawaii, over OC 16 shows that do. From experience, I know that there was a huge difference in buying local airtime on “Da Braddahs” and the Fox series “North Shore” which ran against each other in the same time slot. The difference in price is based on the number and demographics of the people watching each show determined by AC Nielsen Marketing Research. Also, I know a commercial on “North Shore” will be more effective because the program is psychologically designed to help ads work (get people to do actually do something). It would be logical to think that people would prefer to watch lower production value content that deals with their culture, instead high production value content that doesn't. Could it be that the amount of people who can relate to “Da Braddahs” are a small portion of the total island population, or are there other less obvious reasons for viewer habits in Hawaii? This question needs to be studied.

Commercial corporate television helps divide up different demographic groups and creates conflict within, and between people. This is an important factor in all types of colonization. The early western settlers in Hawaii worked to expand and exploit the division between the Ali’i and Maka’ainana. Later, Hawaii’s sugar plantations expanded and exploited the ethnic differences of their contract labor force by separating and creating conflict between different racial groups.

Since emotional conflict is essential in producing television “entertainment” that people will want to watch, TV is a perfect tool for creating conflict between people. In Hawaii, this can be seen in programs that, intentionally or unintentionally, attack or promote different groups of people such as the wealthy, immigrants, homosexuals, ethnic groups, young, old, native Hawaiians, or the religious Christian right. Intentional, or unintentional, stereotyping is also essential for quick, understandable, character development in television shows because of the fast pace and short time span of TV programs. This use of stereotyping also probably has an effect on Hawaii’s cultures. This is another question that needs to be studied in more detail.

As noted earlier, people tend to watch television programming that supports or reinforces their beliefs, interest and lifestyles. This works well for corporations. It allows them to develop specific programming that allows effective psychological colonization and the separation of different groups of people (marketing segmentation). If a person does not like the Christian conservative message on Fox news, they can watch “The Daily Show”, and vise-versa. It is not an accident that McDonald's sponsors programming as diverse as “The Merry Monarch Festival”, “Da Braddahs”, “NFL Football”, “Desperate Housewives” and TV news. The different demographic audience viewing each of those programs is excited, interested and involved because the programming relates to who they are. The effectiveness of a commercial is directly related to the appeal of show it is on.

Television is also good at creating personal conflict and confusion. A good example of this would be all the junk food commercials juxtaposed to images of successful thin people. For most people, it is difficult to eat junk food and be thin. Could this be a factor in the news reports of the growing rates of obesity and depression in the United States, and Hawaii?

Almost every government and private organization seems to have a public relations officer, or agency, that puts a positive spin on TV news items related to them. All this conflicting information can lead to “information overload” and more stress. It also makes it difficult for the average person in Hawaii to make an informed decision on issues that affect them. Making this more problematic is the fact that commercial TV news is solely funded by corporate advertising, which demands a return on investment.


The corporate controlled mass media, particularly the television, is the predominant way that corporations make rhetoric stick in the minds of people today. There is little doubt that large international corporation are using television as a tool in their psychological colonization of Hawaii. We know that a TV program (including the commercials) such as “American Idol” is expensive to produce and distribute. It cost millions of dollars, all paid for by the advertisers. By looking at the ever-increasing amount of commercial programming on TV, we can deduce that TV programs cover their cost, and probably much more, by increasing corporate profit.

Consumer Research has shown that television is very effective at getting people to do things. The program and commercials work together utilizing a large array of psychological knowledge to attempt to “program” people to do what the advertiser wants. Sometime they succeed, sometime they don’t, but either way the program has some effect, intended or unintended, on a person watching it. The bottom line is the high cost of producing and airing television programming must be paid for, one way or another.

Marshall McLuhan noted in his groundbreaking work on mass media;not all information is communicated well through all mass media mediums. In chapter 31 of his book Understanding Media he gives many example of how certain types of rhetoric (simple drama, close up images, movement, etc) are much more effective than others (complex theories, talking heads, etc) in the medium of television. One could argue that the medium of television works well in communicating the exciting, dynamic, materialistic, consumer values of corporate culture.

Even rhetoric that makes no sense at all is believable through the television medium. If you cleverly bombard the population with the same message, at the same time, it can become truth to enough people to form a social critical mass. Could corporate electronic media be mass programming the people of Hawaii to believe they can have it all? Tons of fast food, drugs for every aliment, shinny cars in every garage, and a host of other illusions that, if you believe, can make you happy, prosperous, and safe. Of course, when the media illusion is shattered by hurricanes, wars, energy prices, and other realities, you end up with a very confused population. A confused population may help corporate colonizers who control the medium that many people in Hawaii get “information” from.

What research that has been done on television by different disciplines such as psychology, consumer behavior, anthropology and other social sciences has produced a hoge poge of theories and science, much of it conflicting and contested. Yet understanding the effects of television, positive and negative, would seem to be a very important endeavor as it is such a large force in our world. Could the unintended consequences of television use be a contributing factor to obesity, divorce, violence, rape, and other social problems? Could it be that television’s promotion of a materialistic and consumer lifestyle is a main factor in global warming that will directly affect Hawaii? Again, the research is confusing, maybe deliberately so.

Humans now have a new global media language that reaches most areas of the planet. This language of the electronic media is largely controlled by the multi-national corporations who fund it and are the gatekeepers of electronic mass media distribution. This new media language is altering spoken languages as well as different cultural, religious, and lifestyles texts and signs with a new type of “pidgin” that everyone understands to one degree or another. In Hawaii, we are mostly unaware of how fluent we are in the media language we learn at a young age from TV.

I am constantly surprised how little people of Hawaii know about the purpose and effects of an activity they spend so much time doing. I am also concerned about how little education students receive on the real role of electronic mass media in their life. It would seem logical to educate people about the basic facts of electronic media so they could they could have some perspective on its use. Could it be that this is something that the corporate colonizers don’t want.

One thing that could be done, is to educate the average person in Hawaii about the some of the facts concerning commercial TV, in a way that they can understand (non-academic). In 2001, I was hired to produce such a video to air on Maui’s public access station, the only place not controlled by corporations. I used the latest TV media language to put forth some of the facts about television contained in this paper for the video calledIllusion And Reality. It was hoped that when a person came across the video they would learn information about television viewing that would be reinforced as they continue to watch commercial TV. The object was to get people to cut down their TV time and experience real life. While it aired for years, and could still be running, it was a low budget production and its effectiveness was never studied.

Just as we begin to discover that television consumption is not benign, the mass media of choice is changing again. With the introduction of personal computers and the Internet over the past 30 years, the paradigm is shifting to any entirely different form of electronic mass media. We are now training our children to be “computer literate” without really understanding the same physiological, psychological, cultural and social effects of this new medium of mass communication. In my opinion, we are continuing to conduct an experiment on human behavior with the hope that it works out well, LOL.

Notes to:

“Television As A Tool In The Corporate Psychological Colonization of Hawaii”

[1] The Hawaiian Historical Society Significant Dates in the History of Hawaii


[1] Britos, Peter Phd., Oceania in the Age of Global Media. Symbols, Myth and TV in Hawaii, The First Cycle: An Overview,(Spectator Journal, Spring 2003. University of Southern California, CA.)p 111

[1] Silva, Noenoe. Aloha Betrayed: Native Hawaiian Resistance To American Colonialism. (2004 Duke University Press. Durham) p31-43

[1]Engle Erika, KHON tops in News ratings, (June 11 2002

Honolulu Star Bulletin.

[1] Deetz, Stanley A, Democracy in An Age of Corporate Colonization (1992, New York, State University of New York Press)

[1] Deetz, Stanley A, Democracy in An Age of Corporate Colonization 17-18

[1] Deetz, Stanley A, Democracy in An Age of Corporate Colonization 14-17

[1] Hill, Sanford, Totally Digital Website ( 2005)

[1] Engle Erika, Idol viewership Balloons Local Fox Ratings ( June 16 2004

Honolulu Star Bulletin)

[1] Schiffman, Leon G., & Kanuk, Leslie Lazar, Consumer Behavior. (2004, Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey) 50-75

[1] Kubey, Robert & Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly,). Television Addiction is No Mere Metaphor. (2004, Scientific American Mind. New York, N.Y. Scientific American Inc. 14.1) 50.

[1] Kubey, Robert & Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly, Television and the Quality of Life: How Viewing Shapes Everyday Experience. (1990) Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, Hillsdale, New Jersey. 135-137

[1] Kubey, Robert & Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly, Television and the Quality of Life:185.

[1] Kubey, Robert & Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly, Television and the Quality of Life:88

[1] Kubey, Robert & Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly,). Television Addiction is No Mere Metaphor. 53-54

[1] Kubey, Robert & Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly, Television and the Quality of Life:149-169

[1] Kubey, Robert & Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. Television Addiction is No Mere Metaphor 48-55


[1] Schiffman, Leon G., & Kanuk, Leslie Lazar, Consumer Behavior. 205-243.

[1] University of Hawaii Business Administration, The Honolulu TV Market. (1953, Hawaii Pacific Collection, University of Hawaii, Manoa, Honolulu, HI).

[1] University of Hawaii Business Administration, The Honolulu TV Market. 3-12

[1] Britos, Peter Phd. 2003, Oceania in the Age of Global Media. p 108-111

[1] Britos, Peter Phd. 2003, Oceania in the Age of Global Media. P 102-108

[1] Strangelove, Michael Phd, , Redefining the Limits to Thought Within Media Culture: Collective Memory, Cyberspace and the Subversion of Mass Media. (1998 University of Ottawa. Chapter four

[1] Strangelove, Michael Phd, , Redefining the Limits to Thought Within Media Culture Chapter 4

[1] Kubey, Robert & Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly, Television and the Quality of Life: How Viewing Shapes Everyday Experience 56

[1] Kubey, Robert & Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly, Television and the Quality of Life: How Viewing Shapes Everyday Experience 119-143

[1] Schiffman, Leon G., & Kanuk, Leslie Lazar, Consumer Behavior 157-199

[1] Schiffman, Leon G., & Kanuk, Leslie Lazar, Consumer Behavior 223-224

[1] Schiffman, Leon G., & Kanuk, Leslie Lazar, Consumer Behavior 229

[1] Schiffman, Leon G., & Kanuk, Leslie Lazar, Consumer Behavior 227-231

[1] Becker, Anne, , Eating Behaviors and Attitudes Following Prolonged Exposure to Television Among Ethnic Fijian Adolescent Girls. (2002, The British Journal of Psychiatry. BJP. 180) 509-514.

[1] Kubey, Robert & Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly, Television and the Quality of Life: How Viewing Shapes Everyday Experience,

[1] AC Nielsen Media Research, Television Viewer Demographics for the United States,2002. AC Nielsen, New York, NY.

[1] Silva, Noenoe. Aloha Betrayed: Native Hawaiian Resistance To American Colonialism. (2004, Duke University Press. Durham) p132

[1]Takaki, Ronald, Strangers From A Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans. (1983 Penguin Books, New York, NY ). P 25.

[1] Schiffman, Leon G., & Kanuk, Leslie Lazar, Consumer Behavior 227-231

[1]McLuhan, Marshal, Understanding Media, The Extensions of man, (1964, Reprint 1994 MIT Press. Cambridge, Mass) 308-337

© 2006 Sanford L. Hill

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Sanford L Hill
I am a renegade, renaissance, Hawaii surfer poet who loves to think, experiment, and create radically outside the box. Born and raised in H

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